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GaekwacTe Oriental Series. 

Published under the author- 
ity of the Government of 
His High nets the Maharaja 
Gaekwad of Baroda. 



General Editor : 
B. Bhattacharyya, 
HA, PH.D. 
R&jyaratna, JMn&jyoli* 



No. C1X 





NISPANNAYOGAVALI 

of 
Mahapandita Afohayiikaragupta 



EDITED BY 

BENOYTOSH BHATTACHARYYA 
M.A., PH.D., Director, 
Oriental Institute, 
BARODA 



Orl*nt*l Iatltut, 



Printed by Ramanlal j. Patcl, Manager, 
Sadhana Press, B a rod a and published 
on behalf of the Government of His 
Highness the Maharaja Gaekwad of 
Baroda by Benoytosh Bhttttehiryyaj 
Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda, 
2oth April 1949 



1190 



Price Rs. 






PLATE I 




AK$QBHYA 
according to 



From a Nepulese painting 



PREFACE 

The Nispannayoguvali of Mahapar^lita Abhayikaragupta of the Vikrama- 
^fla monastery is now presented to scholars of Indian Buddhism as No. CIX of 
the Gaekwad's Oriental Series, No apology is needed for its publication since 
it is one of the grandest contributions to Buddhist rituals and Buddhist psychic 
science, within the shortest possible compass written by an ancient author who, 
although inherently eminent, is almost forgotten due to the threefold influence 
of time, neglect and ignorance. 

The publication of the Ni$pannayQgdval$ will make it particularly easy to 
interpret a large number of statuettes discovered in the Forbidden City of 
Peiping in China, and published by Professor Walter Eugene Clark in his two 
magnificent volumes of the " Two Lamaistic Pantheons, " His book has been 
largely consulted and utilized in preparing the introduction with the express 
permission of the worthy Professor. 

The edition of the Ni^panmyogfiwlt is mainly based on two MSS named 
in the footnotes as B and C. When the text was passing through the press we 
were fortunate in securing a third manuscript from Kalimpong through the 
good offices of a Ncpalese scholar of Buddhism Pandit Siddhiharsa Vajraearya, 
With the help of this third manuscript many obscure and difficult points could 
be corrected as the sheets were being print ordered. In spite of this, I am 
conscious that the edition is not entirely perfect for want of more reliable 
material and what is presented here is the best that could possibly be done in 
the circumstances, 

Details of the MSS are given below ; 

B (Baroda). This is a recent copy of the NifpannoyogSvalt written in 
Newari characters of tha last century. The MS measures g|* inches by 3* 
inches and consists of 128 folia, There art 5 lines on each page and 36 
letters on each line. The MS is in the private collection of the editor, 

C ( Cambridge ). The second MS is a photostat copy of the Nifpann&yogSvall 
preserved in the Cambridge University Library and described by Cecil 
iiendali in the Catdogm of th* Buddhist Sanskrit MSS in the University 
Library, Cambridge, 1883, on p, 40 under No, Add, 1279, It is written 
on paper in Newari, with 82 leaves and is dated N, S, 995 ( A J>. 1875 ), 
This photostat copy is preserved in the Library of the Oriental Institute, 
Baroda* 

N ( Nepal ) The third MS of which occasional help was taken in verifying 
readings of the two other MSS is deposited in the Library of the Oriental 



Institute, Baroda, It is written in Newari characters of the Ust century 
and its 102 folia are bound in book form, Its Library number ii 14031 
and it contains in all 1560 granthaa. 

Besides these three copies I do not know of any fourth copy of the work 
in existence in the Indian MSS Libraries* 

Before closing this short preface, I have jo record my grateful thanki to 
several individuals and scholars. My grateful thanks are due in the first iniUnce 
to the great American Orientalist* Professor Waiter Eugene Clark for giving 
me an unstinted permission to use any part of his book entitled the " Two 
Lamaistic Pantheons, " 

To my colleague Pandit K. S, Ramaswami Shaitri, Sironuni, &r*uU 
Pandit of this Institute I am indebted for reading the proofs of tht tilt with 
me and for suggesting improvements. To Pandit Siddhiharaa Vijr&cirya 
of Nepal my thanks are due for taking an active interest in the publication of 
this work and making available the third manuscript without which the editing 
would have been much less satisfactory than it is now, To the authorities of 
the Cambridge University Library I am particularly grateful for supplying a 
fine rotograph copy of the work* The Manager, Sadhana Preii, Barodi execut- 
ed the printing neatly and our technical assistant Kir. M L Joihi rendered 
assistance in various ways, My heartfelt thanki ir due to thtm, 



Bwoda t ) 
8-2-1949. J 



18-2-1949. J B - BHATTACMAWA 



CONTENTS 
Preface 5*' 6 



Introduction 9" 

List of Kandalas 89 



it Text of Ni?pannayogavall .. 1-93 



Index 









Appendix I, List ol Deities with Sanskrit Names as 
illustrated in Vol. I! ol Two Laniaistic Pantheons, 17-28 



Errata 



.. 






LIST OF 




Plate I Aloii|a 
araij id 

II, a 







Plate III 






\ * , ' ^ I 

" : , ' y 

INTRODUCTION ^:. ^ _-^" 

TAtf Author Abhayftkaragupta* 

The last colophon statement in the Ni$pannayogdvali makes Mah&pai?<iita 
Abhayakaragupta the author of the book. It is also recorded in the Tibetan 
Tangyur that Abhayikara is the author of Nispannayogdval!, and the Tibetan 
translation of this work is extant in the Tangyur collection. 

Hah&pa$$ita AbhaySkaragupta was a prolific writer and many of his 
works were translated into Tibetan, He was himself a great Tibetan scholar 
and translated books into Tibetan by himself. The Tangyur Catalogue of P. 
Cordier assigns twenty-four works to him including the Nispannayogdmli. 

The list of Abhayakara's works as given by Mr. Phanindranath Bose* is 
stated below : 

1. S'ri KilacakroddfUia 

2. S'r! Cakrasambarlbhisamaya 

3. Sv&dhithnakramopade&a nima 

4. Cakrnsambarbhisamayopade&a 

5. S'rf SamputitantrarijatlkMmniyamafljarl nUma 

6* Sri BuddhakapalamahatantrarajatlkiiAbhayapaddhati n&ma 

7* PaftcakramamatatlkS. candraprabhi n&ma 

8. Raktayam&ntaka Ni^pannayoga nma 

9, Gai)acakravidhi nftoia 

io Vajraylnipattimafljarf ntma 

11, VarSvall n&ma mai)tjialop,yik3. 

12, Nispannayogiivall ntma 

13, Jyotirmaftjarl nlma Homlyik& 

14, Ucchu$ma Jambhala Sidhana n&ma 

15, Bodhipaddhati nftma 

16, S'r! Mah&k&Iakarma^annbh&ra 

27. Vajra Msh&klla Karmocdtt^^^^^ ra nftma 

18. Vajra Bfah&klla Karmavibhaftg&bhic&ra nlma 

19. Vajra Mahlkila Karmaklyastambhanftbhic&ra n&ma 

20. Vajra Mah&k&la Karmavlkstambhan&bhictra nama 

21. Vajra MahUk^la Karmacittastambhanftbhic&ra n&ma 
12, Vajra Mah&klla Karmabhava^ofa^&bhi^pa n&ma 

23, Vajra Mahakfila Karmabhicara-pratiftaf\jIvana-S'antikarman nilma 
a4 UpadeiamaAjarl n&ma Sarvatantrotpannapui^yasamanyabhasya 

*, Bow ,* IndUo THw:her of Buddhist Universities pp. 8S(. 



10 



Very little is known about our author Mahftparfita Abhay&karagypta 
from ancient historical sources. From information available we know that 
Abhayakaragupta was affiliated to the Vikramaslla monastery, obviously as a 
professor. He was respected in Tibet as a scholar and as a Tintric author He 
was a contemporary of the Pa King RamapMa of Bengal who flourished in 
A D. 1084-1130. Many fanciful and miraculous feats are attributed to him in 
Tibet showing that our author was an adept in Tantra and was able to perform 
miracles whenever required to protect Dharrna* 

The Vikramaill* Monastery* 

Since the author Mahapandita Abhayakaragupta was attached to the 
Vikramaslla monastery, it is necessary to give here a brief account of this 
monastery. Those who are interested in a detailed account of this monastery 
of international importance in pre-Mohammadan times may refer to the admir- 
able account of it in Professor Dr. A- S. Altekar's Education in Anctont Indi&, 
pp. 125 ff. 

The monastery of Vikramaslla was founded bythe Pila King Dfaarmaplla 
(C. 775-800 A.D.) as a teaching institution, and it grew in course of time to be 
a centre of international learning where Tibetan scholars used to flock in large 
numbers to drink deep at the fountain of Buddhist knowledge. The most 
famous among the professors at Vikramagfla is undoubtedly Dtpa&kara S'rl 
Jnana who was invited by the King of Tibet in the nth century to visit the 
country and to reform the condition of Buddhism there, Mah&pa^ita Abhayi- 
kara was a scholar of no less fame and his Tibetan translations show that he 
also may have visited Tibet, Some authorities think that Vikramalfla was the 
second name of Dharmapala, and as he was the founder of the monastery, it 
received the name of Vikrama&Ila in consequence* 

The Vikramaslla monastery Gke other sister monasteries of Ntlandl and 
Odantapuri was destroyed by the invading hordes of Mussalmans in the 13th 
century. Their destructive work was so perfect that It has become difficult to 
identify these places to-day. From f ibetan sources it is known that the 
Vikramaslla monastery was situated in Bihar on a hill on the right bank erf the 
Ganges. This ancient place is now identified with the Ptthargha{l hill where 
extensive ruins, antiquities, and Buddhist images have been found* After 
destroying the monastery and slaying the shaven monks the gallant Muslim 
conqueror must have discovered, as he did at Odantapuri, that It was a 
/'college" with huge libraries. These libraries the conquerors systematically 
burnt to the great relief of the antiquarians of the present age ( 1 ) 

Tfo Date of Abtwylkw. 

Pandit Abhayakaragupta of the VIkramaSfla monastery is the author ol 

He wrote another work "MutwwW;aftA4ra" 



II 

in the thirtieth year of the reign of the Pala King RImaptIa, which is equivalent 
to circa 1114 A. D. 1 Thus our author belongs to the fourth quarter of th 
nth and the first quarter of the rath century, 

Destruction of Buddhism, 

The Muhammadans destroyed Buddhism in Bengal in the beginning of the 
thirteenth century. Our author flourished nearly loo years before this 
destruction, s Buddhism at that time was in its height of glory. Buddhism 
of that time was not the Buddhism of Lord Buddha or of the S'Qnyavftdins and 
Vijft&navSdins, but was entirely of a different type. It was the Buddhism of 
the Vajraylnists of the MahSsukha Schoolin which all forms of yoga, tantra, 
mantra, magic, gods, goddesses, mudris, matxlalas, etc. were intermixed, It 
was a sort of hybrid form of Buddhism in which all that was good and bad in 
Buddhist history was incorporated. As a result, Buddhism became extremely 
attractive and popular in Eastern India, These monasteries wer like Corn 
with formidable walls and gates and contained innumerable temples, lectura- 
halls, libraries, myriads of images of gods and goddesses in precioui itoneft, gold 
and silver, and were overburdened with the accumulated wealth of this agei, 
The lure of loot attracted the invaders, and the monasteries were destroyed. 

Monasteries before destruction* 

Hundred years before that destruction these monaftterie* were hamming 
with academic life. Great scholars were busy writing new books and new 
Sftstras, lecturing to pupils and adepts, attracting pupils from distant lands like 
Tibet and China, There were mystic professors passing yean in quiet medita- 
tion, and in the practice of Yoga and Tantraa, and revealing thtlr rich ex- 
periences in books on Tantras, S&dhtnas, and Mg^tlas. These great mystics 
were making their new experiences known to the masses through lectures, mystic 
songs and communions, They were as it were serving as intermediaries between 
the terrestrial and celestial worlds, and were trying to beautify, ennoble and 
elevate the earthly life with light obtained from the spiritual world. 
The present work N iqp&nnayog&vatL 

Our author Hahipa$^ita Abhayikaragupta was one of those great mystici 
whose name will remain indelibly written in the page* of the history of mys- 
ticism in India* He wrote many books on Sldhtnas and Ma94*la*, practised 
meditation, visualised deities and transmitted his knowledge to posterity 
through excellently written monographs and disciples. Unfortunately, however, 
much is not known about htm uptill now, and it it doubtful whether any of his 

1 See P. Bosa: Indian Teachers of Bu4dbist Universities p 8*. 

* Dr Radhsukumud Mookherji in hit " Ancient Indian Education, " p 593 ttatti 
that " Abhayak4ra was at* tye*wltata of the first Tarw^k* invasion of Iiftfn4b, ** Thi* it 
improbable aale*i fcU p*n of Hit biti ben remaricAbiy Jong 



other books are ever published or known. Thus the Ni$pannay0g$m!l presented 
now in the Gaekwad's Oriental Series proves to be first of his numerous works 
to be published. Even if AbhaySLkaragupta is not well known in the land of 
his birth, he is no less a celebrity in Tibet where all his works are preserved in 
Tibetan translations. He is worshipped as a saint in Tibet, the land of mystery 
and snow. No apology is needed for giving this valuable work Ni$pmn&yQg&mtl 
an edition because this would serve to rescue the name of this great scholar 
from oblivion. 

The Nispannayogtvatt is a work on Manias and is remarkable for the 
richness of information and brevity. It contains in all a6 Marsalas in twenty-six 
chapters, some short, some long. All these mar^aks describe innumerable deities 
of the Tantra cult. A large number of these descriptions is absolutely original, 
highly interesting and informative. Many of the names and forms are altogeth- 
er lost, but are published here for the first time. Many of the deities describ- 
ed accurately in the work are not to be found anywhere in printed literature* 
The Nispannayog&vaK thus presents unique, original, useful and most valuable 
information which constitutes our most authentic material for the study of th 
images and deities belonging to the Buddhist Pantheon. The SftdkammMtM 
published earlier in the series indeed presents valuable material for the in- 
terpretation and correct identification of numerous deities and taaagts* bat the 
Nispanwyogcivali outbeats SSdhanamM, since the material presented here is 
more varied, more extensive and more prolific. 

Discovery of Chinese Statuettes. 

What service this Ni$pannayog$vati can render to Buddhism may be illus- 
trated by a reference to the several hundreds of images of Buddhist deities 
Discovered in the Forbidden City of Peiping in China, It wiM incidentally show 
what influence Sanskrit exercised on China and on her Buddhism, and will 
illustrate forcibly the cultural penetration of Sanskrit that took place ia the 
deepest regions of China. This is a further monument to show how Sanskrit 
conquered the hearts of the Chinese people even so late as the i6th and lyth 
centuries. 

In July 1926 Stael Holstein received permission from Mr* Chuang, Pres- 
ident of the Palace Committee, to visit a number of Lama temples situated to 
the Forbidden City, temples which for many years seem to have been entirely 
neglected. In the upper storey of one of these temples, the Pao-hsiang Lou, 
he found a collection of bronze statuettes constituting a Lamaistic Pantheon 
which had consisted originally of 787 figures. These figures ateog with a series 
of photographs from three manuscripts written in Chinese were studied by the 
famous American scholar, Professor Walter Eugene Clark, Wales Professor of 
Sanskrit in the Harvard University, and be published the material i$ two 



13 

sumptuous volumes, entitled, the Two L&m&intic P#nl$$#fif in the Harvard 
Yenching Institute Monograph Series in 1937* The first volume contains an 
introduction, bibliography and indexes of gods and goddesses in Sanskrit, 
Tibetan and Chinese* The second volume contains illustrations of the deities. 

These illustrations are of the utmost importance for the study ol the 
Buddhist Pantheon not only of China* but also of India* Nepal and Tibet. The 
original images bear inscriptions in Chinese and sometimes in Tibetan and other 
languages, and the learned author took great pains in reconstructing their 
Sanskrit names, In many places it was not even possible to assign these foreign 
names to their accurate Sanskrit equivalents. AH the Sanskrit names which 
could be restored are valuable additions to our knowledge and w take the 
liberty of giving a list of deities so represented in China in alphabetical order 
and append it to this volume, 1 

Chinese statuettes influenced by India, 

A large number of these names derived from Chinese sources i to be 
found in this Nt$pannay0g&vatL It may be remarked here that the deities di* 
covered in China have no descriptive parallels in literature, whereas the Ni$p&nn& 
yogftmli not only gives their names but also full descriptions of at least 60 per 
cent, of all the deities found in China either in the form of statuettes or minia* 
tures in manuscripts. It is thus very probable that Chinese artists derived 
their inspiration from Sanskrit originals before they carved out or moulded tlii 
statuettes of Buddhist gods and goddesses in China, for it is quite inconceivable 
that any artist can prepare images of such wonderful complexity from his own 
imagination entirely without the help of Dhylnas or descriptive texta. Another 
remarkable point that may be noticed in this connection is that although the 
paintings in miniatures have a distinct Chinese flavour, no such thing it notice- 
able in the statuettes, The statuettes present characteristics such as are to be 
found in the images coming from Nepal or Tibet, and it is quite conceivable 
that these statuettes were made by Nepalese or Tibetan artists and then export- 
ed to China. We can also imagine that the Chinese King of the Forbidden 
City of Peiping imported Nepalese and Tibetan artists to China and made them 
execute these statuettes under royal command* 

Whatever may be the circumstances under which the statuettes were made, 
it still remains to be seen wherefrom the artists derived their knowledge of tbi 
correctness of the form of the numerous deities for the purpose of representation. 
Since this book Nifp*nn*yog*v*lt gives full iconographic descriptions of most 
of the deities found in Peiping, it is not unreasonable to suppose thai tbi 
formed at least one of the originals from which the artists 
idea o{ thc (orm of th dellies ' Otherwise it it difficult to 
Set Apptndto at the end of thi$ volomt, "~~ "" w 



14 

conceive how form can be given to such obscure deities as the Sixteen Bodhi- 
sattva, the Twelve Paramitas, the Twelve Va6its, the Twelve Bhamis, the Four 
Pratisamvits, etc. which are described accurately in the Manjuvajra Map^aia in 
the Nispannayogavali. It is not possible to prepare images of these deities with- 
out the help of the descriptions given by Abhayikaragupta* The conclusion is 
thus irresistible that the images found in China correctly represent the forms 
described in Nispannayogfoali, and the artists received this inspiration directly 
from this work of Abhayakaragupta, 

According to Professor Clark who studied these statues, they were present- 
ed by emperor Chien-lung to his mother on the occasion of his mother's eight- 
ieth birthday in the year 1771. It is therefore conclusive that even in the i8th 
century China continued to be deeply influenced by Sanskrit Buddhism which 
she received through Tibet. 

The importance of Ni$pannayog$val$ in unravelling the iconographic prob- 
lems of the Chinese statuettes can hardly be overrated in the present state of 
our knowledge. The obscure deities described in the Nifpannayogdvali can hardly 
be found in India today, but it is strange that their images could be mad in 
Tibet and installed in China even in theiSth century, There are several reasons 
for their absence in India. 

Perhaps our author was better known and respected in Tibet than in 
India, or we have yet to discover hidden store of images prepared according to 
the Nt$pannayog&val$ cannon from under the ruins of some monastery destroyed 
by alien invaders. According to Professor Clark, plaques and moulds of these 
divinities are found with the local dealers even now, and illustrated MSS in 
Manchu and Mongolian with miniatures of Buddhist divinities are still to fcw 
found with curio dealers in Peiping and elsewhere. The question may be raised 
why the Chinese had such a fascination for Indian divinities which are the 
products of Indian Buddhism. To find an answer we have to go deep Into the 
question of Buddhist rituals and the origin of deities. The sublime nature of 
the Buddhist Pantheon no doubt attracted the Chinese mind to it 

Origin of Buddhist D<fili^* 

The origin of Buddhist deities is hidden in a class of Buddhist literature 
called the Tantras. These Tantras are psychic sciences which prescribe a 
variety of psychic exercises in order to experience certain supernormal 
phenomena. The deity is part of this psychic process. The worshipper in deep 
meditation visualises the deity with a form and a variety of symbols* For thf 
purpose of visualisation of deities thera is a class of special literature $n 
Buddhism called the Sadhanas. A number of these Sidfaanas is published in 
the two volumes of the SMh^mmSOM published in the Gaekwad's Oriental Series . 
Jn these Sadhanas practical directions are given as to bow a Yi^fe can achieve 



15 

success by following certain fixed procedure, and visualise the different dt itiee 
described in the book* 

The Buddhist Pantheon in an elaborate form is a product of the Vajrayina 
School which most probably took its origin with Aa%a in the fourth etnttiry, 
The Vajrayinists believed that the Ultimate came of the Universe is S'flnyi 
from which everything originates &nd into which everything merges, The 
Individual Soul is Bodhisattva, or more accurately, Bodhlcitta " Bodhi mind* ** 
and is seemingly separate from the S'fmya or the Universal Soul dot to 
ignorance and impurities, Ignorance and impurity can only vanish by 
continuous meditation on S'Onya and the Bodhi mind becomes gradually 
purified, and in the process of purification glimpses of the infinite S'inyt or tht 
Ultimate Principle gradually reveal themselves before the Bodhiciiti which 
is forever trying to secure oneness with feftnya the Ultimate Cause? of the 
Universe- 

Dtiiies Spring fr&m Y0g& Mtdttatton 

According to GuhyammMja when the BodhsciUa secures ontntii wilh 
Sfinya or the Infinite Spirit in the highest state of meditation, it fnind*slcy S 
Ailed with innumerable visions and scenes, until at lait, like sparks the Bodhi* 
citta visualises letters of the alphabet as gerrn syllables, which graduitly assume 
the shape of deities, first indistinct, then changing into perfect, glorioui, living 
forms, the embodiments of the Infinite. The deities appear before hit mind's 
eye in bright, effulgent, gorgeous and divine beauty in form, dreee, and ornt 
ments. Violent deities in like manner appear in BodMcitta in tht mot violent 
shape conceivable in an awe-inspiring form with dishevelled hair, protruding 
eyes, bare fangs, bone ornaments, skulls and severed heads, and with violent 
and frightful weapons and draw. These beings art known at dtitfei, and ones 
visualized in a regular course of meditation, they never Itavt the ascetic, but 
become one with him, Incidentally, the deities become instrumental In bestow- 
ing on the ascetic more and more psychic, supernormal powers, 

The process of the evolution of the deity is described in Tlntric works, 
where dear cut statements are to b found on the origination of tht deity. In 
the AdMywjr*$*i*grah*, for Instance, it is said " The form of the dtity b 
nothing but an explosion of Sflnya. It is by nature non-exittent, Wherever 
there is explosion, it is Sfinya in essence/ 1 In another place it is declared i 
" From the right perception of Sflnyati proc^ids the gerni syllable ; from tht 
germ syllable proceeds the conception of an icon, and from the kn iu 
external representation. The whole process therefore b one of dtpendnt 
origination, '* 

The above in a nutshell gives an account of the mystery surrounding the 
revelation of deities. When the Bodhicltta combines with S'finya in the Wgheet 



i6 

meditation and concentration, an artificial condition akin to deep leep { u$upti } 
is brought about, and the deity appears on the mind-sky in flashes and sparks. 
The nature of Bodhicitta being finite, it Is not possible to realise the Infinite in 
its entirety, that is to say, the result of the mystic experience ol the Jivltmaa 
also remains finite. And the object for which the Yogin undertakes the psychic 
exercise being different in different cases the deity visualized also becomes 
different. It is the Bhavan " desire " of the worshipper which is of the nature 
of a psychic force, which re-acts on S'unya* giving rise to manifold appearances 
in the concrete shape of deities. The nature of the re-action is of illimitable 
variety and thus the resultant deity also appears in infinite variety of form* 
This is the chief reason why we find a surprisingly large number of deities in 
the Buddhist Pantheon. The ascetic who visualises a particular deity in the 
course of psychic communion makes it a point to record the particular process 
by which the said deity was realised for the benefit of disciples in order that 
the latter may realise the deity in the easiest and the moit efficient manner 
possible. 

S'unya is invoked for thousand and one purposes, and it manifests itself 
in thousand and one ways and in thousand and one forms of deities, It is 
precisely in this manner that the number of deities increased in the Buddhist 
Pantheon, The deities were then classified under five families generally presided 
over by the five Dhyani Buddhas who are the embodiments of the five Skandhas 
or elementary principles. These Dhyini Buddhas are known by the names of 
Vairocana, Ratnasambhava, Amittbha* Amoghasiddhi and Akfobhya, Each of 
these has a distinctive mudra, colour, direction and vehicle as under ; 

Fiv* 



Dhyani Buddha Ptaectkm Hudrl Colour Vtiticte 



I 


Akobhya 


East 


Bhftspar&a 


Blue 


Elephant 


2 


Vairocaua 


Centre 


Dharmacakra 


White 


Dragon 


3 


Amitabha 


West 


Samidhi 


Red 


Peacock 


4 


Ratnasambhava 


South 


Vamdft 


Yellow 


Horse 


5 


Amoghasiddhi 


North 


Abhaya 


Green 


Canada 



From these five Dhytrii Buddhas originate the five families of deities 
named in the GubyasamZja Tanfcra. Coda and goddesses belonging to a family 
have to show on their beads ttemirittan figure <*f the perenUJ Dhyinl Buddha, 
and generally have the same colour and are usually placed in tbe direction 
sacred to the Dhyani Baddfea, Th table below gives the familiw M origtaattat 
from the Dhyani Buddlias : 



i; 

The Five Families. 



No. 


DhySni Buddha 


Name of the family 


i 

2 

3 
4 

5 


Ak$obhya 
Vairocana 
AmitSbha 
Ratnasambhava 
Amoghasiddhi 


Dve$a family 
Moha family 
Riga family 
CintAmaoi family 
Samaya family 



In each family there are numerous deities, They are usually of the tame 
colour as that of their lords called Ku!eas ( Lords of families ) and they usually 
occupy the direction sacred to their respective Kuleia on th nearest inter- 
mediate corner. In the Nhpannayogivall t as a special case Kute&as are indicated 
wherever possible and the information is valuable in determining the origin of 
the various undetermined or obscure deities, The M$pMnayog&vall further 
formulates certain rules by which the origin of deities can be determined, For 
instance, on page 65 in the ma^lala for Dharmadh&tuvagMvara, it ii said that 
the Eastern deities have Ak^obhya as their Kuie&a, the Southern deities have 
Ratnasambhava as their Kule$a, the Western deities have Amitftbha ai their 
Kulega ; and the Northern deities have Amoghasiddhi in their Kufota, In the 
M&rlclmajrfala, again, on p. 41 it is said that the White deities have Vairocana 
as their sire, Black deities have Ak$obhya as their sire, the Yellow deities have 
Ratnasambhava as their sire, the Red deities have Amitlbha as their sire, and 
the Green deities have Amoghasiddhi as their sire* 

In another Marujala (p. 67), the N*$p#nn&y0giv&lt gives the Kultit of 
deities appearing in the intermediate corners, Hert it is said that lha dtltlet 
in the Agni corner have Vajro^f^a or Ak^obhya as their Kulalt ; tht deities in 
the Nairrta corner have Ratno^f^a or Katnasambhava ai their Kwlela; the 
deities in the V&yu corner have Padmo^a or AmiUbha as their Kulcia and 
the deities in the lilna corner have Vilvopf^a or Amoghasiddhi as their Kuleta* 
This information is tabulated below for convenience ; 

Deities and their Sim. 



Kule&i 


Second name of 
the Kuleia 


Colour of 

Beities 


Position of Deitits 
in corntrt 


Akfobhya 
Ratnasambhava 


Vajro$$l$a 
Ratnoplfa 


Black 
Yellow 


Agni 


Amitabha 


Padmo$$!fa Red 


Vlyy 


Amoghasiddhi 


Vilvo$$!fa 


Green 


Ulna 


Vairocana 


* 


White 





The above information furnished by the present work is of utmost import* 
ance for the study of the Buddhist Pantheon, It also shows that the noblt 
conception of the Buddhist Pantheon was not based on the haphazard data or 
mere accumulated tradition through the ages, but was based on sound laws and 
well constructed in relation to the basic elements constituting the universe. 
The deities of the Buddhist Pantheon mostly represent these elemental forces 
according to well-defined plan which continued throughout centuries and form- 
ed the background of all later accretions. Each Kula or family of deities ii an 
extension of a single DhyHni Buddha idea, All the five Kulas or (amities of 
deities are therefore an extension of the Five Dhylni Buddha*, the presiding 
deities, or rather the five elements or Skandhas constituting the Universe. The 
Skandhas are: RQpa (form), VedanI (sensation), Samjft! (name), Saihskftrt 
(conformations) and VijMna (consciousness), 

The present work Nifpannayeg&wilt is a T&ntric work describing twenty- 
six mandates and is replete with information regarding the individual deities 
constituting the Buddhist Pantheon, The iconographk importance of the 
Nispannayogawti cannot be overrated, since it gives for the first time ieono- 
graphic details of more than 600 Buddhist deities. The Ni$pmmy&gMmtt thus 
provides extensive and original material for correct Identification of numberless 
Buddhist images, in stone, metal and in paintings, In this respect its import- 
ance is greater than the standard work on the subject, the $&4h&mm$t&. 

The Saihaiunn&ld describes the procedure for realising or visualising some 
312 principal deities in intense meditation. Sometimes the principal deity is 
accompanied by several minor deities, and therefore, iconographte details of 
many minor deities aro also recorded in this work besides those of the principal 
ones. Sometimes a large number of S&dhanas am devoted to one particular 
deity. But the material presented in the Ni$p&nmyogi&#tt is of a different 
nature. Here one principal >Jty is described along with all his companions 
ajid subsidiary deities, the number in certain cases being surprisingly large as 
will be found in the carefully prepared summary of the different ma^alas 
described in the book, forming part of this introduction, 

The Ma$dala is a circle in which a large number of deities appear In 
smaller circles surrounding the principal deity. Generally, the central chapel is 
reserved for the principal deity. His companions appear in regularly wall 
defined groups and surround him in the four cardinal directions and the in* 
termediate comers, in a series of minor drctes. TMs series is again followed by 
further circles in like manner *ft occupied by a group ol companion dlitlffc 
Sometimes the number of circles is surprisingly tog*. The Marf*, dedicated 
to Dharmadhatuvagfcvara, a form of Mtijulrt, fatt a kif number of deities la 
several circles, and so is the 11*9*0* <Wteatt4 to Kilacakra, tte itit in tto 
series 9* Ma^alas described in the 



19 
Th& Promi &/ Dtiflcttio*. 

From a list of deities indexed at the end of this volume it will b found 
that Abhaytkara Gupta, th author, deified almost everything that was sacred 
in Buddhism. The Twelve Bhdmis or heavens as acknowledged by the Va jrayina 
Buddhists were all deified with a human form, colour, weapons and symbols, 
These Twelve Bhdmis are: Adhimukticaryl, PramuditA, ViinalA, PrabhAkar!, 
Arci?rnatl, SudSrjaya, Abhimukhf, Durartgama, Acali, SAdhumall, Dharma- 
megha and SamantaprabhA. It will be noticed that here two BhOmis are added 
to the ten well-known and orthodox heavens mentioned in the DaiabhQmika 
S'astra. 

Next to the BhCLmis, Abhayakara deities the Twelve PAramitAs. The 
Paramitis are usually the great qualities leading to Buddhahood. AH these 
qualities are deified with heads, hands, weapons and symbols, These Twelve 
Pramitas are: Ratna, Dana, S'lla, K$Anti, Vlrya, DhyAna. PrajAA. UpAya. 
Prai^idhana, Bala, JftAna and Vajrakarma. Out of these twelve the form of 
Prajfiapramita only is widely known. 

In Buddhism, VaiitA stands for the control acquired by a Bodhisattva 
over his mind, longevity, etc, Abhayakara recognised Twelve VatitAs und 
proceeded to endow each of them with human form, facet, hands, weapons and 
symbols. According to the author the Twelve VaiitAs are Ayus, Citia, Parif 
kra, Karma, Upapattl, ?ddhi f Adhimukti, PraoidhAna, ]Mm, Dharma. 
Tathata and Buddhabodhiprabha. 

In Buddhism, there is a class of literature which goes by the general name 
of Dharitfs or DhAragla. There are MSS in Nepal and other placet giving n 
collection of such DhAriitfs, DhArioIs arc so called because one has to commit 
these texts to memory. These texts are usually a string of unmeaning words 
with a distinct sound effect and perhaps contain traces of a language now 
defunct. AbhayAkaragupta makes a selection of twelve principal DhAriolf 
and deifies them with human forms, colour and weapons ai uiunl. In this 
category are deified the following deities : Sumati, Ratnolkl* U^plpvijayl, 
Marl, Par$aabarl, jAAgulI, Anantamukhf* Cunda, PrajAAvardhant, Sarvakar- 
mavaraijavi^odhan!, AkfayajHanakara^4^ fi d Sarvabuddhadharmakoiavatf. 
Out of these DhSri^I goddesses, Ufpf^avijaya, Par^alabirf, ja%ull and Candi 
are well known and often represented. 

In Buddhism, Four Pratisarhvits are acknowledged as the branches of 
logical analysis, and they are named as: Dharma (nature), Artha {analysis), 
Nirukti (etymological analysis) and PrattbhAna (context), Th uuthor 
Abhayakara as usual deifies all the four in the form of goddesses wiih colour 
and weapons. 



But the most noteworthy and strange process of deification is to be 
observed in the Kalacakra Mughal* where human desires of diverse kinds arc 
deified in the form of innumerable Ictldevls like Gandheccht, S'ayanechl f 
Bhojaneccha, etc,, their number running to thirty-seven. It is hardly necessary 
to multiply instances* Our author Abhay&kara must have belonged to a time 
when the craze for deification reached its very jsemth amongst the Vajraylna 
Buddhists, That these very deities should be found in China in the same form 
as described by Abhayakara is stranger still* 

The relation between Hindu and Buddhist Dtitie*. 

The Nispannayogftvati, moreover, gives ample information to enable tts to 
judge the exact relation that existed between Buddhist and Hindu religions 
and the deities affiliated to them. First of all, it is noteworthy that in several 
of the Mandalas a large volume of Hindu deities finds a place, although in a 
subordinate or sometimes humiliating position. Thus it is necessary to investi- 
gate the reason for the presence of Hindu deities in Buddhist konology , The 
first and the principal reason seems to be the intention on the part of the 
leaders to make Buddhism popular amongst the recently incorporated Hindu 
converts to Buddhism. Converts are not likely to be interested in a new 
religion unless they find therein something which is familiar to them. Buddhism, 
unlike Hinduism, believed in conversion and tried to secure a numerical supe- 
riority over the followers of the Hindu Faith, The Hindu character, however. 
caused much concern to the leaders of the Buddhist organisation, and many 
Hindu deities were thus incorporated into the Buddhist Pantheon, By this 
amalgamation a sort of Hindu-Buddhist unity was attempted. 

In this amalgamation one thing however, remained most important. 
Except probably Ga^efe and Sarasvatl in some isolated Stdhanas, no Hindu 
deity was ever given the principal place In the Ma^ala, and whenever Hindu 
deities were accepted they received either a subordinate portion or a humiliat- 
ing role. 

The instances of such subordinate and humiliated Hindu deities Ju the 
Nifpannayogfoali are not isolated examples. They form part of a well organised 
scheme of the Buddhists to incorporate or possibly to humiliate Hindu gods, in 
order to prove the superiority of the Buddhist gods over their Hindu confreres, 
Many examples such as could be gathered from the S&dhanam&l& have already 
been collected in the Indian Buddhist Iconography which was published in the 
year 1924. Here it is necessary that the relevant portions of the book should 
be quoted to make the relation between ft* <!eitie$ of the two opposing faiths 
somewhat clear. There it is said :" Steefctees In the images <rf gods and 
goddesses we notice the presence of Gf^e&t, who to regarded by the Hindus as 
' Siddhidata ' or the Bestower of Perfection or success to Ttntrk rites* The 



at 

Buddhists in order to display their aversion to the followers 
aith f made their gods trample upon Gagelm* Thus in the Indian Museum 
mage of Pari?aabarl and Apar&jitl, the VaAgiya Sihltya Parifad image of 
lahtpratisari, Gaijeia appears below the seat lying prostrate on the ground, 
mder the pressure of Buddhist deities. The Buddhists thus Stowed their 
nimosity against the Hindu god Ga$e4a and gave him the epithet Vighna or 
bstacle. Their animosity may further be illustrated by the following features 
f the Sadhanas. The four Hindu gods, Brahml, Vtypu, Siva and Indra hive 
>een designated uniformly as the four Mima or " Wicked Beings, ** and several 
Suddhist gods have been described as trampling them under their feet. Tht 
&dhanasof Prasaiinat&rl, Vajrajvillnalilrka, VidyujjvlI&karJIIf and the like are 
istances in point. Trilokyavijaya has been represented is trampling upon 
he prostrate forms of S'iva and Gaurf. Nlrlyapa has been made a Vlhana or 
chicle by Harihanharivihana, Poor Brahml has been more wvertly handled 
>y the Buddhists, The severed head of Brahmft r the Brahniakaplta is carr- 
sd by a number of Buddhist deities. According to the Hindu tradition* Brahml 
hould be very old with grey beards and four heads* and the Buddhlit deities 
nercilessly hold the heads by the matted hair and flourish them in their hand*. 
'his is how the Buddhists attempted to exhibit the superiority of their gods 
ver those of the Brahmanical faith. It is a matter of satisfaction however, 
hat the Hindus never disgraced any gods belonging to the alien faith in this 
nanner. On the contrary they placed Buddha amongst the ten Avatlrat of 
fitycmu" (p. 162 f, } 

The above was written in the year 1924, Although much time has flaps* 
rd since then it has not been necessary to modify these views, The Nijpmn&* 
'og&vali bears ample evidence to confirm the above view, For instancy white 
Ascribing the Herukama$4#la (p. ao) the four attendant deities Gaurf, Catsrf. 
Detail and Ghasmarl are made to stand on the chest of Brahml, Idra Upendra 
nd Rudra, The other four attendants stand on the prostrate figures of Yams, 
Cubera, Nairj-ti and Vemadtrf. In the SGmbf&m&%4&i& (p, aft) the principal 
od is made to stand upon the igures of the Hindu deities Bhairava and 
CilarltrL In the Yogimbw&iwnd&te { p, 33 ) the dignifit d position of the gait. 
:eeper is given to such Htodii deities as Hari, Brahml, Mabdivara, a^vaktra 
K&rtUceya), Indra, Kubera, Yama and Varapu The Hindu god Yama hi 
is natural enemy in Yamiataka or Yamlri who stands upon the figure of Yama 
he mighty god of Death. 

Disrespect to Hindu gods is exemplified further in the Hawaii of 
)harrnadhfttuvagttvara in which there is a number of minor deities whose 
ppearance betrays ill-treatment to HJndu gods. The first Vightslntaka ( p. S9) 
ides upon Viniyaka or Gamete ; the second Triiokyavi|ya has one hg m the 
ead of 'Mabeivara and the second on the breast of Umi the ooteort of Siva ; 



the third Vajrajvalinaltrka tramples upon Vif$a accompanied with ins consort ; 
the fourth Herukavajra { p. 60 ) stands upon Brahml and hit consort ; the fifth 
Paramagva (p. 60) is endowed with four tegs, and under each of these there 
appear two Hindu deities* The first takes care of Indripf and S*rf f the second 
Rati and Prlti, the third Indra and Madhukara and the fourth Jayaicara and 
Vasanta. 

The Synthesis of ike KM&c&km Cult. 

It is hardly necessary to multiply instances. Several Mandalas, notably 
Kalacakra, assign subordinate positions to the highest Hindu deities* It cannot 
therefore be denied that at sometime or other the Buddhist* developed hatred 
for Hindu deities and therefore humiliated Hindu gods, Bat there is another 
aspect of the question that should not be lost sight of, The way the Hindu 
deities are incorporated in the Ni$pann&yog&mlt t especially in the Mapjjhilji of 
Kalacakra, shows conclusively that there was a need for this incorporation. 
The Kalacakra or the Circle of Time as the highest god was set up by a partic- 
ular section which wanted that the Hindus should unite with the Buddhists 
under the common non-sectarian banner of the Time-God Kliteakra in order 
to present a united front against the cultural penetration of the Semitic peoples 
which had already invaded Central Asia and Iran, Several of the associates 
of Kalacakra are time gods, to wit, Amtvasyi, PGrnimI, the lords of the Twelve 
Months and the rest. The Vimal&pmbhfr a commentary on the Klltcakra 
Tantra records that an invitation was extended to the highest Hindus to 
embrace the worship of Kalacakra in order to ward off the evil of Hlecelm 
civilization which was sure to envelop the East and corrupt the sons and 
daughters of both the Hindus and the Buddhists. The Hindus could join the 
Buddhists only on two conditions, namely, mterdining and intermarriage 
with tfoe Buddhists. It is said that the Hiadus at first refined both, but later 
cm accepted the two conditions owing to certain miracles. Incorporation of 
Hindu deities in the Buddhist Pantheon was thus a necessity also, and it is no 
use overlooking this fact. Although the Buddhists gave undue attention to 
conversion, at the end it proved abortive, because with the destruction of 
Buddhism, the converts were absorbed in the great Hindu mass in accordance 
with the inexorable laws of mature. It only provides one more eieample how 
cultural fusion is continuously going on here ia India lor tfee benefit and 
enlightenment of all men in the country, In fact, thi* external fusion of etslf tires, 
made what India is to-day, The present work Ni$anwyg$wlt was composed 
when the Kalacakra cult was firmly esttWUsfeed in India, 



The contribution of the 



e contribution of the Ni$p m n^^ ^ ^ knowte%e of Boddfaift 
Iconotogy and Buddhist rituals is great and varied, TWt work makes oiir vague 



n 

notions accurate by allowing the connection of the deities wilh the idea*, notions 
and dogmas current in Buddhism, or with the parental Dhylni Buddhas and 
their Kulas, regulation of colours of the deities and the directions with which 
they have natural connection. A summary of the whole book which appears 
later in this introduction will make this point clear, With the help of this book 
it will be possible to write a comprehensive work on the Buddhist Pantheon, 
classify the deities accurately according to Kulas or families or according to 
colour and directions* With the help of this book it will also be possible to 
identify the surprisingly large number of Buddhist statuettes, discovered in 
China in the Forbidden CJty of Peiping, Thinking that it will be profitable to 
compare the list of deities (barring a few exceptions) available in China* with 
those that are found mentioned in the Ni$p&nn&yo&v&ll t an index of deities 
illustrated in the second volume of the ' Two Lamaiitic Pantheons * by Professor 
Walter Eugene Clark is appended at the end of this volume, 

This index will show that a large number of deities mentioned in the 
Ni$*n*ayogto*tt have their parallels in China. Here it is necessary to point 
out how our present work helps the student to identify correctly the Chinese 
statuettes. It is physically impossible to deal with the subject exhaustively in 
an introduction of this kind, and therefore observations will be restricted to 
only a few typical examples. 

The Sixieen BodhimUvas. 

Let us begin therefore with a study of the most important et of Buddhist 
deities called the Sixteen Bodhistttvas, There are altogether three nets of 
Bodhisattvas, one headed by Samantabhadrt and the two others by MaStrtya, 
The Samantabhadra group is taken first While studying the iconography of 
the Sixteen Bodhisattvas it will be our endeavour to find out what kind of 
similarity existed between their descriptions in the Ni$pmmy&gmMt and their 
statuettes discovered in China. As the material is altogether novel, It It 
proposed to devote some space for its treatment 

x, Sawantabkadra, 

At the head of the group of Sixteen Bodhisattvas stands the popular ftgure 
of Samantabhadra who is mentioned here at least ten times and described in 

five different forms* 

Samantabhadra appears in the Ak$obky&m#$4te along with nsvtn othtri 
(p,6), but here he has no independent or individual form at he has assumed 
the form of his Kulela, Vajrasattvt who is described on p,a as Maftjuvajra with 
three faces and mx arms in the company of his Prajftt with the four other hands 
holding the sword, arrow, lotus and bow, 

Samantabhadra is again referred to on p.46 in the 



24 

Here again he is of the same form as his sire Amoghasiddht, with the Garcia 
vehicle and right hand in the Abhayamudit, 

Samantabhadra is further described in the DkamMkmmgiimmtwngafa 
(p-58) along with other Bodbhattvas. He is described as yellow in colour 
showing Varada in the right hand and a sw<*rd or lotus in the left. 

In the Durgatipariodhamm<xn$al& (p.6y) Samanlabhadra appear* as a 
Bodhisattva with an independent form. He is described as of yellow colour, 
holding a bunch of jewels in the right hand, and left resting at the hip. 

In the miacahmmmdala (p,8s) Samantabhadra is popular, He is of 
blue colour. In the right hands he holds the Vajra, knife and Paraiu and in the 
left Gharta, Kapaia and severed bead of Brahmt ( or night lotus ). His S'akti 
is Dharmavajri. 

In the second volume of the * Two Ltmaistk Pantheons * at least five 
statuettes of Samantabhadra are illustrated. 

The first one ( p. 8 ) shows Samantabhadra as two-armed with Vartda in 
the right and sword or lotus in the left. He sits hi Lalita attitude 

The second illustration ( p. 9 ) shows him as two-armed with the right in 
Abhaya and the left holding sword or lotus, He sits in Sukhisana, 

The third ( p. 52 ) shows Samantabhadra as six-armed with the three right 
hands holding the sword, Vtevavajra and mirror, while the three left hold the 
ghai^a, leaves and jewels. He Sits in Vajitsana* 

The fourth ( p. 133 ) shows him as one-faced and two-armed showing the 
Abhaya with Vtevavajra in the right and left resting on thigh. 

The fifth ( p. 274 ) in a miniature painting shows him as two-armed with 
the right exhibiting the fruit in Varada wad left the lotus, 

From the above comparative material it can be assumed that Samanu- 
feliaLte's peculiar features are sword or lotus, hand oil hip, double lotus, Abhaya 
and Varada mudrs etc. Ail these feattbris are found In the descriptions in the 
Nispanmyogftvalt as .well as in the later statuettes discovered in China. There 
can be little doubt that these Chinese statuettes of Samantabhadra were 
influenced and inspired by Sanskrit in general and Abbay&kara in particular. 

2. 



The second Bodhistttva in Nfypmnayogiwll is Akftyawati He is 
described four times in the book. , 

In one (p. 46) Ak^ayamati takes the same form as Amogha&idd&i with 
Abhaya in the right and tte left lying R Ufa tip, 

In the second ( p. 58 ) he is yeltoir to ^m, widto| 9*m& to tfa* riftit 

and e;xhibitiftg tb* Ablaya witti lotus in >tkt Wt, ., 



In the third < p, 50 ) he is golden in colour, the clenched left hand In btld 
against the chest with the Varada with rotary in the right hand, 

In the fourth { p. 67 ) he is white and with the two handu holds the bowl 
with the nectar of knowledge, 

A Chinese statuette of Ak^ayamati in illustrated on p, 131 of tha * Two 
JUmaistic Pantheons/ Here Ak^ayamati has anumecl the form of Amoghatid* 
dhi with the right raised against the chest in Ahhaynmudrft with Viivavajro 
while the left rests on the lap, 



The third Bodhisattva is K*!t>garbha who is described In the .Vi>J>*fiJM* 
yog&v*lt definitely at least twice, 

In one (p* 6} he is described as identical with hia sire Vairocana with the 
JDharmacakramtidrt and the Cakra symbol* 

In the second ( p, 58 } he is described as yellow in colour showing the earth- 
touching mudrl in the right hand and a lotus with the Kalpa tree in the left* 

There are altogether four illustrations of Kfitigarbhst in the * Two Lamatst* 
ic Pantheons/ These Chinese specimens depict him as showing the Vartdnmtidri 
in the right and the lotus in the left in two statuettes, The third ihowa him a* 
three-faced and six-armed and the fourth shows him with the fruit in the right 

and lotus in the left* 



4, 

The fourth Bodhiaattva in order is AkUagarbha who is alto known by 
the name of Khagarbha. Several references to these names are to ba found fit 
the text of Nifpannayog&vtlt* Akftiagarbha is sometimes ( p. 6) given the time 
form as his sire Ratnasambhava with the Varadamudrl with the jewel. 

In another description he is green in colour, with the right hand in th 
attitude of showering jewels and the Cintlmapt jew! in the left, 

Altogether four illustrations of AkUagarbha appear in the *Two Lamaiatic 
Pantheons.* In China, AkMagarbha is represented in three distinct varieties, 
Two statuettes show the lotus in the right and Varadtmydrl in the left. The 
third is three-faced and six -armed, while the fourth shows the jewel in the right 
and Varada with jewel in the left. 

5* GaganctgQ%ja> 

The fifth Bodhifiattva in order is Gtganagaftji who is four time* described 
in this book* His colour is yellow showing his affiliation with Eiinaaambhavi 
of yellow colour with Varada and jewel. 

At oue place (p, 58) Gtgaiiagtflji is described as yellow with the right 
hand holding the CiatiWMti Jewel Md left a bowl from which the Ktlpt trtt ( 



26 

suspended. At another place ( p, 50 } his left hand is clenched and rests on the 
.hip while the right is raised in the act of motion. A third {p 67) makes him hold 
the Dharmaganja on lotus and the left rests on the lap* In the fourth ( p, 46 ) 
he is identical with his sire Ratnasambhava* 

The only Chinese statuette of Gaganagafija shows him as Ratna&arnbhava 
with the Cintamanl jewel in the right hand in Varadamtidrl and the lift retting 
on the lap. 

6, Raimp&$t* 

The sixth Bodhisattva in order is Ratrtapi&i who is de*cribd only onct 
in our text, i$ altogether absent in the Chinese collection of the * Two Larrumtic 
Pantheons. ' 

Ratnapani is described on p, 58 as green in colour holding in the right 
hand jewels and displaying the Moon on the lotus in the left. Apparently, he 
belongs to his sire Amoghasiddhi of grter* colour, 

7. Sfyaramaii. 

The seventh Bodhisattva Stgaramati is described twic* in the *Vif#itffHMi* 
yogavalf, and his statue is not found in the collection presented in the * Two 

Lamaistic Pantheons. ' 

In one place ( p. 58 ) he is described as white in colour with th right 
hand holding the conch and the left a sword marked with a Vajra* In another 
place (p. 50) he is represented with both hands outstretched with fingers 

playing the waves. 

8, Vajragarbha. 

The eighth Bodhisattva Vajragarbha is described thrki In thto book but 
he is not represented in the Chinese collection, 

In one place ( p. 58 } he is described as blue in colour wltti the right band 
holding the Vajra and the left showing th Dafabhainika bode. In anothtr 
place ( p. 67 ) he is described as biaisfa white and at holding the bint bins tn 
the right hand with the left resting on the hip. la the third (p. 46) he i* 
identical with ArnoghasiddfaL 

9, Avalokiit&ara. 

The ninth Bodhisattva in order is Avatoklteivara who is described twice 
in the text. His sire is Amitabha with the SaraadM madrt and In on plact 
( p. 6 } he is described as resembling Aimitibtia, In another place ( p, 58 ) !** it 
white in colour, shows tbe Varada to tltt right and lotus to the left. 

In the Chinese collection that are few statuettes ol AvtkOdWirtriu If* 

t ^ofthem(pp. 7 ,it)!*o W tt*v^^ tb* 

left, A third ( p, 161} 



a; 

chest* A fourth (p, 195} represents him m holding the book on him in the 
right bind with the left resting on the hip, 



The tenth Bodhfoattva Mahiithlmaprlplt is described twice in the text 
and only one statue of his is found In the Chin%te collection. 

ilihlsthlmaprlpta ii described here (p. 58) as yellow in colour with the 
right hand holding the sword and the Jtft the lotus, At another place (p. 53} 
he holds six full blown lota** in the left hand and shows the Varadt mudrl in 
the right* 

In China he ii found to hold a full blown lotws in the left hand and the 
right touches it against the chest. 

if, Cuwtmpr&blm. 

The eleventh Bodhisattvi Candrapmbha is described four time* in the 
book, In the first ( p, 58 ) he is white in colour and holds in the right hand the 
discus marked with * Vajri tnd In ttit left the Moon on lotos, In the second 
(p,46) he is Identical with his parental Dbylni Buddha Amitibha. In the 
third (p* 50) he holds In the left hand the Moon on lotui and shows the Varada 
in the right. In the fourth ( p 67 ) he has in the right hand the Moon on lotus, 
and the clenched left rests on the hip, 

In the Chinese collection Candrtprmbba occurs only once { p, 147 ), and 
here he is the same as Amit&btia with full Bodbleattva ornaments and drew. 



The twelfth BodhisaUva Jttinfprabha is described four times in the 
Nifptm$t#y0gimtL In one ( p, 58 ) he is reddish white In colour and holds in tbe 
right hand tbe sword and in the left the Sun on lotus. In the second (p 50) 
he is red and holds in the left itit Sun on lotus and the Varadt in the right, In 
tbe third (p,6;) he i* red and holds in the right tbe Vajrapafljara and the left 
rests on the hip, HU red colour suggests that his sire is Aniitlbha. In the 
fourth (p. 46} he is identical with Amltlbha, 

In the Chinese collection he is reprettnted only once and bare he Is 
identical with Amhabh*, but with regal ornaments and dress, 



The thirteenth Bodhtottva Amttaprabba is described thrice in the 
Xifp**nayogto*lt, In ooe ( p. 59 ) he i white in colour and holds in tbe right 
hand the double Vajra and In the left a Jar on lotus, In the second ( p. 46 ) be 
is identical with hi* spiritual *lr* Amitibha* In the third { p. 50 ) he is red in 
1 and holds in two hands the Jar of consecration, 
Araitaprabha Is not represented la the Chinese collection. 



14, 

The fourteenth Bodhisattva is described four limes in the present text. 
In one ( p. $9 ) he is yellow in colour and holds in the right hand the stick 
(chhotika) and in the left the sword on lotus, In the second ( p. 46 ) he is 
identical in form with his spiritual sire AmoghasiddhL In the third ( p, 50 ) he 
is green in colour and his right hand rests on the lap while the left shows 
Varada. In the fourth (p. 67} he is red in colour and holds in the right hand 
a jewelled crown on lotus and the left rests on the hip, 

Pratibhanakuta is not represented in the Chinese collection, 



15. 

The fifteenth Bodhisattva Sarvaiokatamonirghltainati in described four 
times in the Ni#mn*yog*vaU, In the first (p. 59) he it red in colour and 
holds in the right hand the Vajra with five thongs, and the javelin in the left. 
In the second ( p. 66 ) he is whitish yellow in colour and holds in the right hund 
the rod and the left rests on the hip, In the third (p. 5) he it golden in 
colour and his two hands are engaged in the act of striking ( prahAra ). In the 
fourth ( p. 46) he is identical with Akfobhya. 

In the Chinese collection this Bodhisattva is represented only once as 
Tamodghatamati (?). This picture shows him as carrying the sword in th 
right hand while the left rests on the hip. As S'okamrghltanamati (?) he is 
represented like Ak?obhya( p. z 35) with BhGfparia in the right and the left 
hand on the lap, 

1 6, Sanianwara$*w?kambkin. 

The sixteenth Bodhisattva Sarvanivara^tvifkambhin, also known by his 
shorter name Vikambhin is described lour times in the present text. In one 
( p. 59 } he is blue in colour and holds the sword in the right hand and the flag 
in the left. In the second { p, 50 } he is blue in colour and shows tht earth 
touching mu<ira in the left hand and displays in the right the act of pacification. 
In the third ( p. 85 } he is identical with VaJrocana, and in the fourth { p, 6 ) he 
has the same form as that of his spiritual sire Amoghasiddhi. 

He is represented four times in the Chinese collection* In two { pp. 7,11 ) 
he has lotus in the right hand, and the left rests on the hip. In the third 
( p. 52 ) he is three-faced and six-armed, and in the fourth ( p. 374 ) he holds 
the club in the right and the left rests on the hip. 

Besides these sixteen well known Bodhisattvas there art others who are 
omitted in the above list. The Ni$p&mwyQgiwd$ in three places { pp 5O # 59, 
67 ) has given three different lists of Sixteen Bodhisattvas. One Is headed by 
Samantabhadra and the two others by Maitreya, The preceding dtseripttea of' 
the Sixteen Bodhisattvas follows the ordtr as given on p* 58, 59 to 



tg 

dedicated to DbarmidhlttiiflglivAri Only stvtn itatnts art common in the** 
three lu*u, ntmtly. Akfayamafi, Pf4iiblittmkafi f S^rvAiokataroomrgh&umati, 
Jilinfpfftbha, Caftdripfubha, Amiupfabha ( alto called Afnriapfibhs ) ami 
GaganagaAj*. 

The list 01 Sixlttn BodhisAlfvas occur? tag on p 30 in tb# Man^d** dtdicat- 
ed to HaAjuviijfji croniiiifii Ibt following mmm in ordrr Tltis iist is httdfd by 
or iht Future 



a 
j 

4, 
5, 

< 

7, 



ta. Jllifilprbh* 



15. Gigtnagifijii* 
16. 

Tbf nanm matk*<i with an iiltritk tiavt fa^n d^cribad prtvioualy and, 
fherttoft, ih rtmatitiitg 0t wttl bt diaciMMd *MU and ccMftipartd witb tbtk 

as avallabit in tbt 



i. 



Mailrtya Bodhteatlva wto li now waiting in the Tufiia hmvm in rdtr io 
com<& down to earth at iht ftiiyrf Buddha is dticfibtd four time* in the 
In the Aft! ( p, ) h it identical with hi* rirt who in Ibis 



cast is Vafraaaa. In tb si^d ( p. 46 ) bt to Mntical with Iht Dhyiai 
BnAIha Akfottj^u In tto iblrd ( p. 3 ) ^ ** fottr-arniid and is of foWten 
catour. Hi showg In hla two principal handi iht DharmEcmkramwdri, the 
ioond f%hl abowi iht Vmrada and Ihi ii^nd Itli holds tbt Nlf aktar a flowtr 
with leive*. In th fourth, { p. 66 ) h la ytllow in ootoor and holds in Iht 
right iht Nlf akftera tow^r and tbt Kurujl or bowl in the bit. 

In Iht CMotit collection bis statutes occtif ftiic time*. In the ftmt ( p. 
7 ) fato ri^l bad ahowt Iht Varada with tht Niak4ar flowtr . whUt Iht M t 
his Abhaya, In IN tteoad ( p, f ) tht right hand holds N^akrtara white tht 



left shows Varada* la tfat third { p, 59 ) ht m throe-f accd and tight* armed, In 
the fourth ( p. 143 ) he shows Ifat Bh&fparia in tht right hand, white the left 
lies on the lap, and in this respect be it identical with hit spiritual sire Ak^obhya, 
In the fifth (p. 195 ) the right hand holds a bowl on lotus while the left rest* 
on the hip. In the sixth { p. 202 } he shows in a standing posture the teaching 
or Vitarka mudra in the right hand, while the left holds n bowl 

The descriptions and statuette* of Ha i trey a as found in India and China 
show that he was one of the most respected and one of the most popular ods 
of the Buddhist Pantheon* 



Next to Avalokiteivara, ManjuArl is important in the Buddhist 
as the god of Learning with the sword for destroying ignorance ind the book of 
transcendental wisdom. Many of his forms are already described in the Indian 
Buddhist Iconography, In the present work although reference* to MafljuArf, 
Mafijughoa, Maftjuvajra are numerous, his form* dtscribtd art not many, la 
one place (p, 6) MafljoM is Identical with hit parental Dhyini Buddha 
Ak?ohhya, and in another { p. 54 ) he fa shown ai three-faced and siM-itrmed, 

The Chinese collection presents no less than five different statuettes thaw- 
ing his great popularity in China. In one place ( p. 7) he shows Virada in the 
right hand, while the left has sword on tottis, In the second ( p. it ) with his 
two hands MafijugrI exhibits the Dharmaodbraiattdrl, and over his shoulders 
appear the sword on lotas in the right and tht book m lotus in tbt Ml. la 
thid third ( p. 53 ) he is three-faced and six-armed. In tbt fourth ( p. 198 ) be 
shows in the right hand the sword on lotus and in tbt left Yarada* In tbt fifth 
(p. 199 ) he carried the sword in the r%ht had white tbt left carries tbt book 
on lotus, 



.: to tfct M**MM*jqflMfe tins Bodhbattva Gandbabtsli is described thrict 
' l<Mpms* In one tbt second part $f hi* name " Hmstl M is 

irtce aMd in tbt second F iiiiiitiict it given to tbt first part 
Gandha - IB to d^eriptto ( P#5 o} Gaadbtbi^i tepttn in oitotsr, 
holds m . At hit band as elephant trtmk on a pltcbtf, and Vimd ill tbt right, 



,/ 

the third ( p. 46 ) he k M^tleal with his jire 

G 

Here h 
thplap 



Here he told* .the fa* 



4. JWnaktiu. 

The Bodhi&attva JMnaketu i$ described thrice in the Ni$pannayog&vali, 
In one place { p. 50 } he is described as of yellow colour and holding the flag 
marked with Cinttma$i in the left hand and showing the Varada in the right* In 
the second { p. 67 ) he is blue in colour holding in the right the Cint&ma$i flag 
and the left resting on the hip. In the third (p. 46} he is identical with his sire 
Ratnasambhava. 

This Bodhisattva is represented only once in the Chinese collection* Here 
( p. 146 } he sits in Samldhi, holds the Cintamapi jewel in the right hand while 
the left rests on the lap* Thus lie is identical with Ratnasambhava, but with 
ornaments and regal dress, 

5. Bh&lmp&la, 

The Bodhisattva Bhadrapita is described thrice in the Ni$pannayog3vali. 
In one place ( p. 46 ) he is identical with his sire Amlt&bha, In another (p. 50 ) 
he is red in complexion, shows jewels in the left and Varada in the right* In a 
third ( p. 67 ) he is white in colour and holds in the right jewels with effulgence 
and the left rests on the hip* 

Bhadrap&ia is represented only once in the Chinese collection (p. 147)* 
Here he is identical with Amitabha whose hands are arranged in Sam&dhi 
tnudrl, with a bowl on lotus placed thereon* Bhadrap&la* however, wears all 
Bodhisattva ornaments and regal dress. 

6, S&fvMpiy&%}k& 

The Bodhisattva Sarvlplyafljaha also known by his shorter name o! 
Ap&yaftjaha is described thrice in the NifpannayogAvatt, In one (p* 46) he is 
identical with his spiritual father Akfobhya, In the second { p. 30} he is white 
in colour and display* with his two hands the act of removing sin. In the third 
( p. 67) h is white in complexion, and holds the a&kuia (goad) in both hands* 

He is represented twice in the Chinese collection. In one (p. 143 ) he is 
identical with Akfobhya with the Bh&paiia in the right and the left resting on 
the lap* In another place ( p. 169 ) his right hand with open palm rests against 
the chest while the left shows act of forbidding. Perhaps this attitude is 
identical with the act of removing sin. 

The third list of Sixteen Bodhisativas occurs on pp. 66 and 67 of the 
Nifpannayog&vali in the Manila of Durgatipari$odhana, In this list the 
following names occur ; 

x, Maitreya* 

a* Amoghadariin 

3. Aptyafljatia* 

4. Sarva^okatamonirghatarnati * 



3 2 

5. Gandhahasti * 

6. Surangama 

7. Gaganagaftja * 

8. Jfiananaketu * 

,9. Amrtaprabha ( same as Amitaprabha } * 

10. Candraprabha * 

11. Bhadrapala* 

12. Jalinlprabha* 

13. Vajragarbha 

14. Aksayamati* 

15. Pratibhanakufa* 

16. Samantabhadra* 

Those marked with an asterisk have already been described in the two previous 
lists. It now remains to treat the others to complete the section on Sixteen 
Bodhisattvas. 

i , A moghadariin* 

The Bodhisattva Amoglmdarin is described twice in this present text. In 
one (p. 46) he is identical with his sire Ak$obhya with the Bhft^paria mtidrl, 
and in the second ( p. 66 ) he is yellow in colour and holds the lotus in the right 
hand and the left rests on the hip. 

He is noted thrice in the Chinese collection. In one { p. 247} he shows 
Abhaya in the right and the left with open palm is slightly raised over the lap. 
In the second (p. 20) he shows Abhaya in the right and the left rests on the 
lap. In the third (p. 143) like Ak^obhya, he displays BhG$para in the right 
hand and the left rests on the lap. 

2. Surangama, 

The Bodhisattva Surangama is referred to twice in the Nfapann&yQg&vtdl* 
In the first ( p. 46 }lie js identical with Ratnasambhava and in the second ( p, 67 ) 
he is white in colour, holding the sword in the right hand and the left rests on 
the hip. 

In the Chinese collection Suraftgama is represented only once on p* 135. 
Here he shows the Varada with jewel while the left rests on the lap. 

3, Vajragarbha, 

The Bodhisattva Vajragarbha is referred to twice in the NigpanmyegMvalL 
In one place (p. 46) Vajragarbha is identical with his parental Dhy&ni Buddha 
Amoghasiddhi with the Abhaya mudra. In another place {p, 67 } he is whitish 
blue in complexion holding in the right hand the blue lotus with the left resting 
on the hip. 

Vajragarbha is not represented in the Chinese collection of the " Two 
Lamaistic Pantheons " Vol. II. 



PLATE III 




(a) TALIKA 



(b) KUSCIKA 




( c ) KAPATA 



( d ) PATADHARlljII 



33 

In order to explain further the close connection between the Chinese 
statuettes and their descriptions in the Nitp*MMpcg4hwlf, we shall take tip 
here a set of four obscure, unimportant and unfenown deities. These are men- 
tioned in the P*te*4&k*m*i4*lA on page 77. Their names as given in the 
present work are ; 

TlUikl 

Kyflcl 

Kaplfi, 



Apparently, these deities are the embodiments of the valuable household articles 
such aj the Lock (TllikI), Keys (Kufkt), Dooir planks { Kaptfa ) and the 
Curtain ( Kl^apafa }. These four special household divinities are given these 
very symbols in their hands in an appropriate mtnner, 

In China, these very deities with the above symbols appear, and they are 
illustrated on page 108 of the "Two Lamaistic Pantheons" Vol. IL Their 
original names obviously are the Sanskrit ones, but they are somewhat differently 
restored from Chineie in Prof. Clark's book, Here they are named as; 

DyRriUlakadhari 

Kuftcikftdharft 

Dvlndhari* and 

Vitinadhari, 

It ii not difficult to identify Dvlrattlakadharl having the lock in hand with 
Tftlikft; Kufldkftdharl having the keys with Ku fid of the Pafica#Uca Ma^ala; 
Dviradhari holding a door plank with Kmplti and VitinadharS. holding a 
curtain with Pa|tdhlri^l of thtNifpannayegSvall. Thus it is conclusive that the 
artists who are responsible for the production of the Chinese statuettes must 
have been influenced in a large measure by the NitpaHHayogdvaii of Abhaylkara 



With thaie few preliminary remarks, a summary of tbe whole boofc w 
flvtis btlow : 

1. Matyuvajra M'an^ala, . 

The central deity is Maftjuvajra who it of the nature of Vajrasattva, the 
xth Dhyini Buddha, an extension of the form of the Dhyani Buddha 
Vairocana. 

He is surrounded by ten deities of .direct ions: 
I, Yamftntaka~Ea*t 
a* PrajMntaka South 

3, Padmiatakm W^il 

4, Vigtotataka North 

5, TiWrIia~Agiii comtr 



34 

6. Niladanda Nairrta corner 

7. Mahabala Vlyu corner 

8. Acala lana corner 

g, Usflfsacakravarti Above 
10. Sumbharaja Below 

Mafljuvajra has a set of four Dhyani Buddhas in the inner circle in the four 
cardinal directions and four Buddhaafctis in the intermediate corners, as 
under : 

j, Vairocana East 

2, Ratnea South 

3, Amitabha West 

4, Amoghasiddhi North 

5, Locana Agni corner 

6, Mmakl Nairrta corner 
*1* Pa^i^ari, VlLyu comer 
&, Tlri, lna comer 

Besides these in another circle appear six female deities in the different 
directions : 

1. Rupavajr,~Agni corner 

2. S'abdavajrH Nairrta corner 

3. Gandhavajrt VHyu corner, 

4. Rasavajri, lna corner 

5. Spar^avajrE East-North 

6. Dharmadhatuvajri East-South 

The different companions in the Mafljuvajra Ma$<Ja!a are classified accord- 
ing to the progenitors of their families. These progenitors or heads of 
are usually the Dhy,ni Buddhas* The classification as recorded in this 
is given below :~ 

Ak$obhya Family 

1. Maftjuvajra 

2. Tathigatas 

3. MamakI 

4. S'abdavajra, 

5-13 Eight Krodha deities 



1. LocanS, 

2. Rupavajrt 

3. YamSntaka 



35 

Family 
x, Gtndhavajri 

Family 



a. Rasavajrft 
3, Padmlntaka 

Amogkasiddhi Family 
I. Tir& 
a, Spariavajra 



or Ak$obhya Family 
$* Dharmadhatuvajri 

2, Ak$obhy# Mandate* 

Ma^^iak as described in the Pi^Jkarma Tantra is recorded in 
the econd chapter of the Nifpannayogivalr, 

In the central shrine appears Ak?obhya locked in close embrace with hi$ 
Svftbfal PrajM Sparfavajri, 

He is iiarrounded by the Tathftgatas in the four cardinal directions and 
the S'afctis in the four intermediate corners. These are : 

i* Vairocana 

a, Ratnas&mbhava 

3, Amltfibha 

4- Amoghasiddhi 

5* Locanft 

6. MimakT 



7, 

8. Tirl 

In the second circle appears the following; 

2, Rupavajrl "Agni corner 

a, S'abdavajrl Nairrta corner 

3, Gandhavajrli V&ya corner 

4, Rasavajrl liana corner 

In the third circle there are eight Bodhisattvas* Their names are given 
below, two Sn each direction: 

i. Maitreya 1 

a. Kfitlgarbha J mt 

3, Vajrapi^i 

4, Khagarbha 



+ 

\ Soatfa 



36 

5 . Lokevara / ) 

6. Mafijughoa ) 

7. Sarvanivarariavikambhm 1 North 

8. Samantabhadra ) 

In the outermost circle appear the ten Krodha deities or the presiding 
deities of the ten directions. Their names in this Ma^ala are given as follows : 

1. Yamantaka 

2. Prajfiantaka 

3. Padmantaka 

4. Vighnantaka 

5. Acala .^, 

6. Jakkiraja 

7. Niladan<Ja 

8. Mahabala 



10. Sumbharaja 

The, Dhyam Budd^ family to wW$h tha differenl deities belonged i$ given 
clearly in this Mandate. The information given hert xni&y b summarised as 
under : - 

Vajr*$*tto* Family 

1. Akobhya 

2. Samantabhadra 

Ak$obhy& Family 

1. Tath&gatas 

2. Mimakl 

3. Vajrapi^i 

4. Mafijughofa 

5. U^Sja 

6. Sumbharaja 

Vairocana F&mUy 

i . LocanS, 

2. Rupavajra 

3. Maitreya 

4. Kitigarbha 

5. Yamintaka 

6. Acala 

*R&tm& Family 

i. S'abdavajrt 

55. Khagarbha ' ' ' 



37 

3. PrafMntaka 

4. TakkMja 

Amiidbka Family 
x. Pfi$4ara 
2* Gandhavajrt 

3, Loke&vara 

4, Padm&ntaka, 

5, Nlladai^a 

i Family 



. f k 

* 2, Rasavajrl 

3* Spaiiavajra* ' 

4. Vifkambhin 

5. Vighnintaka 

6. Mahlbala 

3. 

This Ma^ala is extracted from the S'ri Sampuja Tantra ; although the 
chief deity is mentioned here as Vajradhara, he 5s taken as a form of Vajrasattva 
in accordance with the concluding remarks. 

The outermost circle is occupied by the ten Krodha deities ; 
x. Yamiri 

2. PrajMntaka 

3. Padmtntaka 

4. Vighniri 
5* Acaia 

6. Takkirlja 

7. Ntladaptfa 

8. Mah^bala 

9* U^lfacakravarti 
lo. Sumbha 

Round the central deity Vajradhara there are the Dhyini Buddhas and 
their S'aktls in the different directions and corners thus : * 
i. Vairocana East 
a, Ratneia South 

3, Amit&bha West 

4, Amoghafddh!~North 

5, Locani IHna corner 

6, Himak!-~Agnl corner 

7, Pi^^art Nalrrta corner 

8, TlrlVlyu corner 



3$ 

In the second circle beyond the PhyiUii Buddha^ and their S'aktis appear 
the following female deities, eight in number :- 

1. Vajraraudrl East 

2. Vajrabimba South 

3. RagavajraWest 

4. Vajrasaumya North 

5. VajrayakI lana corner 

6. Vajradakim - Agni corner 

7. S'abdavajra Nairjta corner 

8. Pfthvlvajra Vayu corner. 

In the? third circle beyond the second appear the following eight feraaf<j 
deities in the four directions and four intermediate corners as follows : 
i. Hasya East 
3. JLasya South 

3. Gjta West 

4. Njrtya North 

5. VamSa liana corner 

6. VJ^a Agn! corner 

. 7. Mukunda Nair^ta corner 

8. Muraja- Vayu corner. 

Beyond this on an outer circle appear the following eight goddesses in 
the eight directions and intermediate corners : 

1. Pupci Agni corner 

2. Dhupa Nairjrta corner 

3. Dlpa Vayu corner 

4. Gandha lana corner 

5. Adar&~East 

6. Rasa South 

7. Sparta West 

8. Dharmi North 

Besides these, there are four gate-keepers in the shape of four goddesses : 

1. Vajranku^I East 

2. Vajrapa^I -South 

3. Vajrasphofa West 

4. Vajragha$t& North 

The parental Buddha is indicated in the Mao^&Ia which supplies valuable 
information regarding their origin : 

Ak$obhyfr Family 
i. Vajrasattva 
3. TathSgatas 



39 

3* MImakI 

4, S'abdavajrt 

5* Gltft 

6, Spargavajri 

7, Dharmadhltuvajri 

Vairocana Family 

i Locan& 

2. Vajraraudrl 

3, P|*thvfvajr& 



5. Hisyl 

6. Vaihii 



Ratnasambkava Family 



a* Vajrabimbi 

3. DhfipS 

4. Usyi 
5- Viol 

6. VajrapMf 

AmiMha Family 



3, Vajrarigt 



4* Gtndhl 
5. Mukundl 



Atnoghasiddht Family 

x. Tiri 

2, Vajraiawnyt 

3- Vajrayakf! 

4- Nrtyi 
5. Ras& 
6 Morajft 

7. Vajragha^fi. 

4. jMna$Akini Manual*. 

Ths central shrine i occupied by Jflanatfikinf with a blue fa^s and there- 
fore of blue complexion, three-faced and six-armed. She is associated with the 



40 

irental Dhy,ni Buddha Akobhya of blue colour, and thus represents an 
^tension of the Akobhya Family, 

In the four cardinal directions a set of four goddesses is stationed : 

1 . Vajradakinf East 

2, Ghoracjakinf North 

3 , Vetall West 

4. Ca^4a)l South 

The following four additional goddesses occupy the four intermediate 
orners : 

1. SimhinI I&Lna corner 

2. Vyaghri Agni corner 

3. JambukI Nairjia corner 

4. UlukI Vsiyu corner 

The four gates of the Majtfaia are occupied by a further set of four 
oddesses ; 

1. Rajanti East 

2. Dipinf North 

3. Ciii^I West 

4. Kambojl South 

Although families of these deities are indicated at the end, it is not reli- 
tble enough to be dependable. 

5. Hevajm Mantfala. 

Hevajra is one of the most popular deities of the Buddhist Pantheon and 
;eparate Tan trie works are devoted to his worship, ^n this, particular section 
ieveral varieties of Hevajra are mentioned. When t|?o-armed he is named 
[railokyakepa. The second variety is four-armed au<J the third siae-armed. 

In all the three cases, the inner circle is occupie4 by tight deities begfn- 
ling with Vajraraudrf . t , . 

Beyond, in the second circle in the four intermediate corners thert are 
;our deitiel: '"' 

1. Vam^L - 

2. Vfi?a 

3. MukundSL 

4. Muraja 

In the four gates are the four deities :* 
i, 
2. 



There is another variety of Hevajra with sixteen arms, and his 
is here described rather more elaborately than the rest. 

In the first circle appear eight goddesses on lotus petals in the four direc- 
tions and the four intermediate corners : - 

1. Gaurl-- East 

2. Catarl South 

3. Vetll West 

4. Ghasmarl North 

5. Pukkasft^na corner 

6. S'abarl Agni corner 

7. Ca$$lf Nairrta corner 

8. pombinf VSyu corner 

Beyond this circle in the outer corners are stationed four deities beginning 
with VarMI, 

The four gates of the Ma^ala are occupied by the following : 

1, Hayisyl East 

2, S'CJkarisyi South 

3, S'v&ntsyt West 

4, Sirfthtsyl North 

6, Nair&imM Ma$4#ta 

In the central shrine is to be found the goddest Nair3,tm& In the first 
circle there tr thrte more deities ; 



a, GaurT 
3, Vajratfifcinf 

In th second circle appear four deities in the four directions : 
i, Gaurl 
a, Caurl 

3. Vetlll 

4, Ghasmarl 

In th four corners mr to be itan ; 
X, PukkasI 
a. S'abarl 

3, Ca$<JIlf 

4, Pombl 

Above the central deity Nairttmt towards the east and weit appear 
respectively : 

i. Khecarl 
z, BhUcarl 



42 

In the corners there are the four deities beginning with 
The four gates of the Nairatma Mandala are occupied by the four deities 
in the four cardinal directions : 

1. Hayasya -East 

2. S'ukarasya South 

3. S'vanasya West 

4. Simhasya North 

7. VaJYamyla Mandala 

The central shrine is occupied by S'rf Vajramfta of green colour, who thus 
appears to belong to the family of Amoghasiddhi, the Dhyini Buddha of green 
colour. 

Jp. the first circle there are eight goddesses in the four cardinal directions 
and the four intermediate corners; 
.. Saumyar East 

2. Saumyavadani. South 

3. Candri West 

4. S'ainl North 

5. S'aiman4ala Agni corner 

6. S'ailekha-Nautta corner 

7. Manojfia V&S*t* cWner 

8* Manohladanakari l,na corner 
In the second circle there a!re four deities in the four corners : 

1. Puspa 

2. Dhupa 

3. Dlpa 

4. Gandha 

In the four fcardinal Sdiractterfg again" there &*& f^ur mof6 :^ i 

1. Varh^a 

2. Vina 

3. Mukunda 

4. Muraja 

The gates of the Mandala are occupied t>y a* &t Of four 

1. Bhrkutltarariga East 

2. Bhayabhisana South 

3. Hayarupa West 

4. Gananayaka North 

8. Hentka 



Heruka is another very popular deity in Tantric Buddhism and independent 
Tantras are deypt^d to his worship. According to a statement in 



43 

the parental Buddha of both Heruka and his S'akti Nairtm& is Akobhya, and 
thus It appears reasonable to take Heruka as an extension of the Aksobhya idea. 
In the first circle appear the familiar deities, eight in number, in the eight 
different directions;- 

1. Gaur! 

2. Caurl 

3. VetUlI 

4. Ghasmarf 

5. PukkasT 

6. S'abarf 

7. Caixlalt 

8. pombl 

In this Ma^Iala several forms of Heruka are noted. The first is eight- 
faced and sixteen -armed with the S'akti Nairtm* The second is two-armed 
with NairHtml as S'akti or femate counterpart The third is four-armed with 
as S'akti, while the fourth is six-armed with Vajraftr&khalft -as'S^kti, 



Mahlmtya is not a female deity* It is the name of a special form of 
Heryka which is four-faced and four-armed, and has for his S'akti the deity 
Buddha$&kinL The colour of the deity is black or blue, and he belongs to the 
Aksobhya family, 

The deity is surrounded by four goddesses in the four cardinal directions: 

1, Vajra^Udnf East 

2, Ratna$Ikint South 

3, Padma$ikin!~~* West 
4* Viiva<l&kin!-~North 

The five plkinls belong to five different families of DhyHni.Buddhas* 
Thus : 

x, Byddha$kinl S'Mvata or Vairocana family* 
2* Vajra$Ik5nI Ak^obhya family 
3* Ratna^ftkin!-~!Utnefo family 

4, Padma^ikinl VitgKa or Amitlbha family 

5, Viiva^&kinf ^Amoghasiddhi family 

lo, Buddhakapftla Mantfala 

The central and principal deity is Buddhakapfda, who is surrounded by 
eight deities on eight petals in the four cardinal points and the four intermedi- 
ate corners. The names of these deities, their directions, and parental Dhyini 
Buddhas as given in this Map^ala are summarised as under :-<~ 



44 



No. 


Deity 


Direction 


Parental Buddha 


j 




East 


Ak$obhya 


2 




South 


Vairocana 




PatalavasinI . 


West 


Ratna&ambhava 




Saubhadra 


North 


Amitibha 






lna 


Akobhya 


6 




Agni 


Vairocana 


7 


Aka^avasinl . . . . . 


Nairfta 


Ratnasambhava 


8 


Pitambara 


Vyu 


Amitibha 











II. 



Vajrah&mk&m 

The central deity in this Ma^ala is called VajrahGrlik&ra who fa given 
the epithet of Trailokyavijaya exhibiting the Trailokyavijaya mudrl. 

He is surrounded by the ten Krodha deities who are named differently in 
this Ma^ala but can be identified with the known names of the Krodhas, 
Their new and old names along with directions are given below : 



No. 


New Name 


Old Name 


Direction 


i 


Vajndatfa 


Yamantaka 


East 


2 


Anaiarka 


PrajMntaka 


North 


3 


Vajro$Ia 


Padmintaka 


West 


4 


Vajraku^^alf 


Amrtakuj?4 a ^ 


South 


6 
7 


Vajrayak^a , . 
Vajrakla 
Mahakala 


Takkiraja 
MahUbala 


Agni 
Nairfta 
Vlyu 


8 


Vajrabhl^aija 


Acala 


Idina 


9 


P^pisa 


UQl^a 


Above 


10 


Vajrapatala 


Sumbha 


Below 



12. Sambara 

The central deity is Sambara, four-faced and twelve-armed who is 
accompanied by his S'akti VajravarthL 

Surrounding the pair in the four cardinal directions appear the following 
four goddesses : 

1. Dakim 

2, Lama 
3. 

4. 



45 



In the intermediate corners are kept four holy vessels. 

The peculiarity of this Man^ala is that it has three circles of deities, and 
are called here as : 

i. Cittacakra 
:*. Vakcakra 
3. Klyacakra 

There are sixteen deities in each circle, two in each direction and two in each 
corner, The information as given in this Ma$cjala is summarised below in 
tabular form : 

i. CiUa Circle 

i, East { i ) 

(ii) 
a. North ( i ) Mahlkaftktla 

(ii) 
3. Wtt ( i ) 



Kafikaia 
Prabh&vatf 



4, South 



5, Agni ( i ) Sur&vairf 

( ii ) Vlramatl 

6, Nairrta ( i ) Amitlbha 

( ii ) Kharvarl 

7, VHyu ( i ) Vajraprabha 

( ii ) Larlkevarf 

8, !&tna ( i } Vajradeha 

{ ii ) Drumacchlya 



IL V&k Circle 



i. East 



i ) Arikuraka 

( ii ) tr&vat! 

a, North ( 5 ) Vajraja$ila 

( ii ) Mahlbhairava 

3. West ( i ) Mahtvlra 

( 5i ) V&yuvegl 

4, South ( i ) VajrahQAktra 

( ii ) Surtbhakfl 

5 # Agni ( I ) Subhadra 

( Ji ) S'ylmidev! 



4 6 



6. 


Nairrta ( i ) 


Vajraprabha 




() 


Subhadra 


7- 


Vayu ( i ) 


Mahabhairava 




( ii ) 


Hayakarnl 


8. 


lana ( i ) 


Virupaka 




(ii) 


Khaganana 






III. Kay a Circle 


* 


East ( i } 


Mahabala 




(ii) 


Cakravega 


2. 


North ( i ) 


Ratnavajra 


3- 


West ( i ) 


Hay^grlya, 




(ii) 


S'au^ii)! 


4- 


South ( i ) 


Aka^agarbha 




(ii) 


Cakravarmj^I 


5- 


Agni ( i ) 


S'rilt'erufca 




( ^ ) 


Suviri, 


6. 


Nairrta ( i ) 


Padjcnanartteivara 




(ii) 


MahatJaJlL 


7* 


Viyu ( i ) 


Vairocaija 




( ii ) 


Cakravartii?! 


8. 


lana ( i ) 


Vajrasattva 




(ii) 


Mahavirya 


Besides these there is another set of eight deities as gate-keepers in the 


four directions 


and corners: 








i. Directions. 


i, 


Kakasya 




2. 


UlukasyS, 




3- 


S'vanasya 




4- 


S'ukarasya 








2, Corners. 


f 


Yamadahi 




2. 


YamadutI 




3- 


Yamada$?tn 




4- 


Yamamathanf 





The parental Dhy^ni Buddha of the principal deity of the Ma$$a!a is 
Ak$obhya. Vajravlrhl has Vairocana as the parental Buddha. The p&kinb 
belong to the Ratne^a family. Deities o! the Citta circle belong to Ak^obhya, 
of Vak circle to Amitabha and of Kiya ckck to 



47 
13- Buddhakap&la Man$ata, 

BuddhakapfUa is the name given to Heruka when he is four-armed, one- 
feced, dances in Ardhaparyartka and is associated with his S'akti Citrasent, 
The pair is surrounded in the first circle by four deities : 

1, Sum&linf East 

2, Kapllinl North 

3, BMma -West 
4* DurjayS, -South 

In the corners there are vessels made of skulls. 
In the second circle there are eight deities ; 

1, Subhamekhala East 
2, RGpifll -North 

3, Vijay -West 

4, Kamin! South 

5, Kapalin!-~Ina 
6* Mahodadhi -Agni 

7, K&riQl Nairrta 

8. Sumaiinl 'Vayu 

In the third circle likewise there are eight deities : 
x, Tri^! East 

2, Bhlmadariaall North 

3, Sudarianl W^t 

4, .Ajayt Soath 

5, Subha Ina 

6, Tl^laka Agnl- 

7, Kaiaratri Wairrta 

8; "HaMhasSVayu ' ' ' -""" " ' ' 
The fow gat are^guErde(* by the- follow ing four goddesses ; 
x, Sundarl East 

2. Vajrasundarl -North 

3, Swbhagi.West 

4* PriyadaHani South 

With regard to the parental Dhyani Buddhas this Ma^ala furnishes the 
following information, 

* t. The principal deity Is stamped with the Five Dhyini Buddhas, 
2* Citrasen*s sire is Mah,vairocana. 

3, Four goddesses beginning from SumilinI have RatneSa as sire, 

4. Deities of the second circle have AmStlbha as sire. 
5* Deities of the third circle have Vairocana as sire, 

6, The four gate-keepers have Amoghasiddhi as thft$r sire* 



14* Yogdmbara 

The central deity here is called Yogambara, three-faced and six-armed, 
blue in complexion, embraced by S'akti JMna^akini and belonging to the 
Aksobhya family. 

In the first circle appear four deities in the four cardinal directions, each 
with a special Vahana and with a special mode of sitting (isana ) : 



No. 


Deity 


Direction 


Vehicle 


Asana 


i 

2 

3 


Vajra<JakinI . . 
Ghora<Jakini 
Vetali 


East 
North 
West 


Elephant 
Peacock 
Garuija 


Lalita 
Ardhaparyahka 
Utk&taka 


4 


Ca$<JalinI 


South 


Servant 


JinuparyaAka 



The four intermediate corners are occupied by four more deities with a 
special vehicle and a special mode of sitting : 



No. 


Name 


Corner 


Vehicle 


Asana 


i 


Siihhinl 


lana 


Lion 


Lalita 


2 


Vyaghrl 


Agni 


Elephant 


Ma$<Jala 








Trunk 




3 


J.mbukl 


Nairjrta 


Buffalo 


Ardhaparya&ka 


4 


umki 


Viyu 


Jackal 


Utkfltaka 



Beyond the first circle of deities in the four cardinal direction! appear 
four more subsidiary deities : 

1. pikinl East 

2. DipinI North 

3. Ciisinl West 

4. K&mbojl South 

In the second outer circle there is another set of four deities in the four 
cardinal directions : 

1. PukkasI East 

2. Ghori--North 

3. UgrI West 

4. Kapill South 



49 

Each of the intermediate corners is occupied by a set of two deities."] 
Thus there are eight deities in the corners: 



2. Gandhi 

3, 
4. 

5. G!tt 

6. DhQpa 



1 I&na 

V Agni 

> Nairj-ta 

I Vtyu 



In the outermost circle the gates are occupied by a set of eight deities: 

I* Hari East 

2, Brahm&~- North 

3, Maheivara West 

4, a$vaktra South 

5, Indra litna 

6, Kubera Agoi 

7, Yama- Nairjta 

8, Varuoa- Viyu 

Beyond this there is a set of sixteen deities divided into four groups 
according to four cardinal directions : 
x Karaftkabhairavt 
a. Khatv&ftgar&kfasm 
3# Ga^eSvara 
4, Gha$takari?a 



_ 
East 



6. Chandodeva 

7. Jvarefivara 
8. 

9* Takkirudra 

10. 

ix t Damaru^tmbara 

J3 phakMbhaylnaka 

13, Tumbure^vara 

14, Sphtonada 

15, Darhtr&karlla 

16, Dhanurdhtara 

Very Interesting information is 
colour of the deities- 



North 



ta this Mai?4ala with regard to the 



I. 



50 

While. 



1, PukkasI group 

2. Deities in the Agni corner. 

2, Yellow. 

1. Ghora group 

2. Deities in the lana corner. 

3. 

1. Ugr! group 

2. Deities in the Vayu corner, 



4, Slack or Blue 



i. 



Kapall group 
2, Deities in the Nairfta corner. 

With regard to the parental Dhyani Buddha the Ma^ala gives interest- 
ing details and these are noted below : 

Deities a Crest 

1. Yogimbara Five Dhyani Buddhas 

beginning with Ak$obhya 

2. JMnadakini Akobhya or Vairocana 



1. Vajradakinl 

2. Ghoradakim 

3. Vetali 

4. Ca^dalim 

1. Siinhini 

2. Vyaghn 

3. Jambuki 

4. Uluki 

1, Brahma 

2. Mahegvara 

1. Deities of white colour 

2. Deities of yellow colour 

3. Deities of red colour 

4. Deities of blue colour 



Amit&bha 
Amoghasiddhi 



Ak^obhya 
Vairocana 
Ratnela 
Amitbha 



Vairocana 
Amitbha 



Vairocana 
Ratne^a 
Amit&bha 
Ak^obhya 



5* 

The last four groups of gods and goddesses, when unspecified, will have 
these parental Dhy&ni Buddhas, according to colour, 

15. Yamftri Man$ala* 

The central deity in this Maiiclala is Yamari, the enemy of Yama and, 
significantly enough, he tramples Yama, the god of Death under his feet. 
Yamari here is three-faced and six-armed and is associated with a Sakti which 
is his own emanation. 

In the first circle there are four gods in the four cardinal directions and 
four goddesses in the four intermediate corners : 

I, Gods. 

i Vairocana East 

2, Ratnela South 

3, AmMbha West 

4, Ir$yiiyaiMri North 

a. Goddesses 

i, Vajracarcik& Agni 

a VajravHrahf Nairrta 

3. Vajrasarasvatl V&yu 

4. Gaur! Isana 

The four gates of the Ma^^ala are guarded by the following deities : 
l, Mudgarayamtri East 
2* Da^ayam&ri South 
3* Padmayam&ri West 
4, Kha^lgayamiri North 

16. Vajratfiri, Manila, 

The central deity in this Ma^lala is Vajratira, four-faced and eight-armed. 
She is surrounded by four deities in the first circle ; 
1, Pufpatlrl East 

2* Dhfipatirl South 

3, Dlpttlrl West 

4* Gandhat&rl North 

In the second circle as guardian of gates appear four deities, with two 
more, one above and one below : 

1, Vajrftftkutt East 

2, VajrapUI South 

3, Vajrasphott West 



52 

4. Vajragha^ta North 

5. Us$iavijaya Above 

6. Sumbha Below 

The parental Dhyani Buddhas for the different deities as given in the 
Mandala are stated below : 

Deity Parental Buddha 

1. Vajratara Ratnea 

2. Pu$patara Vairocana 

3. Dhupatara Akobhya 

4. Dlpatara Amitabha 

5. Gandhatara Amoghasiddhi 

6. Vajrankugi Vairocana 

7. Vajrapai Akobhya 

8. Vajrasphota Amitabha 

9. Vajraghanta Amoghasiddhi 
10. UsQl^a Ratne^a 

n. Sumbha Ak^obhya 

17. Maricl Mandala 

The principal deity of this Maij^ala is MSrlcl, three-faced and six-armed, 
She is associated with seven sows. Her name and seven sows representing seven 
rays of the Sun-god suggest that Marie! is a kind of Sun-goddess in Buddhism. 

In the first circle there is a set of eight goddesses in the cardinal directions 
and intermediate corners : 

1. Arkamasi East 

2. Indumasi South 

3. Antardhanamasi West 

4. Tejomasi North 

5. Udayamasi Agni 

6. Gulmasi Nalrrta 

7. Vanmasi Viyu 

8. Civaramasi 



In the second circle round the principal deity, there is a set of eight deities 
in the four cardinal directions, two in each and four goddesses in the four comers, 
The list is given below: 

i. Mahaclvaramasi > 

) 



2, Varahamujchl 

) 

f 
) 



3. Padakramamasi 

,r ,- f South 

4. Varai! 



PLATE II 




PASCARAK$A MANI)ALA 



From a Nebalese 



53 

5- Parakramamasi 1 

6. Vadall f WeSt 

7. Ugramasi \ 

o tr -u- r North 

8. Varahf j 

9. Vartt&ll Agni 

10. Vadlli Nairfta 

11. VarUlf Vayu 

12. Var&hamukhl I&Lna 

The gates of the Mai?clala are guarded by four deities with peculiar and 
strange names : 

1. Alo East 

2. Tab South 

3. Kilo West 

4. Matsaro North 

With regard to parental Buddhas, this Mai?<;Jala gives the information that 
the principal deity Mlrfcl has Sli&vata ( Vairocana ) as the sire, and the deities 
in the four cardinal points have their sires in Ak^obhya, Ratnea, Amitabha 
and Arnoghasiddhi, Corner deities are marked with the Caitya* But the most 
important information obtained here is that the sires of the deities have to be 
fixed according to their colour, e.g. 

1, Vairocana for White deities 

2, Akobhya for Blue deities 

3, Ratnasambhava for Yellow deities 

4, Amitlbha for Red deities 

5, Amoghasiddhi for Green deities* 

18. Pa%carak$& M&ni&la 

The Ma^ala is called usually as the Paikarak^ Man^ala because it in- 
cludes always the five raft$& or protective deities, or in other words, the five 
great protectresses, Their worship is fairly widespread in Buddhist countries 
and in times of distress and danger, they are worshipped. Manuscripts of 
PafkarakfH are kept ready at hand by Buddhist householders and it is recited 
regularly by them on appropriate occasions, 

Anyone of the five deities can occupy the central position in the Ma$$ala, 
but here Mahtpratisar appears at the centre, and she is surrounded by the 
other four Rak$! deities in the four cardinal directions : 
x, MahSs&hasrapramardinI East 

2* Mahftmantrlnuslrinf South 

3, MabSsitavatI West 

4, Mafaim&yirf North 



54 



In the second circle appear the following four deities in the four inter- 
mediate corners, to wit : 

1. Kali Agni 

2. Kalaratri Nairria 

3. Kalakanthi Vayu 

4. Mahayasa lana 

The four gates are occupied by the following four deities in the four 
cardinal directions : 

1. VajrankuI 

2. Vajrapai 

3. Vajrasphota 

4. Vajrave! 

19. Vajradh&tu Ma%$ala 

Vajradhatu is the name given to the Dhyani Buddha Vairocana who is 
described here as four-faced and eight -armed, sitting on a lion* 

In the first circle appear in the four cardinal directions the following four 
goddesses whose names end with ' Vajrl '. 

1. Sattvavajrl East 

2. Ratnavajri South 

3. Dharmavajri West 

4. Karmavajri North 

Beyond this, in the four principal directions there are the four Dhyani 
Buddhas on their respective vehicles: 



No. 


Buddha 


Direction 


Vehicle 


i 

2 


Akobhya 
Ratnasambhava 


East 
South 


Elephant 
Horse 


3 


Amitabha 


West 


Peacock 


4 


Amoghasiddhi 


North 


Garu^a 



Each of these four Dhyani Buddhas again is surrounded by four deities 
in the four directions: 

Aksobhya is surrounded by : 

1. Vajrasattva East 

2. Vajraraja South 

3. Vajrarga North 

4. Vajrasadhu West 



55 

Ratnasambhava's circle consists of : 

1. Vajraratna East 

2. Vajratejas South 

3. Vajraketu North 

4. Vajrahasa West 

Amitabha is accompanied by ; 

1. Vajradharma East 

2. Vajratlksna South 

3. Vajrahetu North 
4* Vajrabhaa West 

Amoghasiddhi has for his companions : 
,1 Vajrakarma East 

2. Vajrarak$a South 

3* Vajrayaka North 

4* Vajrasandhi West 

Round the central shrine in the four corners appear the following : 
i* Lfisyi. Agni 

2. Mlla Nairrta 
3* Gltft Vftyu 

4. Nftya Mna 

On the outer strip beyond the central chape! on lotuses, there is a set of 
sixteen Bodhisattvas, four in each direction:-** 

1, East. 

i* Mai trey a 
2* Amoghadar^i 

3, SarvipSyaftjaha 

4* Sarvafokatamonirghfttamatl 

2, South. 

5* Gandhahasti 

6* Surangama 

7, Gaganagajflja 

8* Jfllnaketu 

3, Wtsl 
9. Amitaprabha 

10* Candraprabha 

11. Bbadraplla 

12, J&linlprabha 



5 6 

4* North. 

13. Vajragarbha 

14. Akayamati 

15. Pratibhanakuta 

16. Samantabhadra 

The outermost circle is occupied by the following four deities in the 
corners : 

1. Vajradhupa Agni 

2. Vajrapuspa Nairfta 

3. Vajraloka Vayu 

4. Vajragandha ls*ana 

The four gate-keepers are mentioned as follows ; 

1. Vajrankus'a 

2. Vajrapas'a 

3. Vajrasphota 

4. Vajrave^a 

Interesting details regarding the parental Dhy&ni Buddha of the different 
deities mentioned in the Man$ala are given here* The information may be 
classified under the different heads as follows : 

Vairocana Kuleia 

1. Aksobhya 

2. Ratnasambhava 

3. Amitabha 

4. Amoghasiddhi 

Aksobhya Kuleia 

1. Sattvavajn 

2. Vajrasattva 

3. Vajraraja 

4. Vajraraga 

5. Vajrasadhu 

6. Lasya 

7. Dhupa 

8. Maitreya 

9. Amoghadarsl 
10. Sarvapi-yafijaha 

it. Sarvaokatamonirghi,tama ti 
12, Vajrankusa 



x. RT'a.tna.va.jrI 

:z. Vajra-ratna, 

3. Vajrateja.s 

4- Vajnaketu. 

5, Vajra.lvli.sa. 



Oancihahnsti 



I. DHarma.va.jrf 
se. Vajratdthatrma, 
3. 



5. 

6. Ot 



7. 

S* Amitapratbha. 



i a* Vajraspho^a 

i Ka.rmmva.jrf 
a* Va.jraka.rm a 



4. 



x a * Va. j r&'vesla. 



58 

2O, MaHjuvajra 

The central deity in this Ma$$ala is Mafljuvajra of the nature of Vairo- 
cana, three-faced and six-armed. His Maij^ala is described in an elaborate 
-manner with a large number of gods and goddesses. 

In the first circle surrounding the central deity are the following in the 
cardinal directions and intermediate corners : 



i. Akobhya 


East 


2, Ratnasambhava 


South 


3, Amitabha 


West 


4. Amoghasiddhi 


North 


5. Locana 


llna 


6. Mamaki 


Agni 


7. Pa$$ara 


Nairjrta 


8. Tara 


VSyu 


In the second circle, there is another set of eight deities in the four direc- 


tions and four corners : 




i. Sattvavajrl 


East 


2. [Ratnavajrl] 


South 


3. Dharmavajrl 


West 


4. Karmavajrl 


North 


5. Cunda 


liana 


6. Ratnolka 


Agni 


7. Bhrkuji 


Nairrta 


8. Vajrasrnkhali 


Vayu 


In the third circle, there are 


four Bodhisattvas in each direction. The 


details are as follows : 




i 


, East 


i. Maitreya 




2. MafSju3rI 




3. Gandhahasti 




4, Jflanaketu 




2. 


South 


i* Bhadrapala 




2. Sagaramati 




3. Akayamati 




4. PratibhanakQfa 




3- 


West 


i , Mahasthamaprapta 




f, Sarvapayaftjaha. 





59 

3. Sarva^okatamonirghatamati 

4, Jalinlprabha 

4. North 

i . Candraprabha 

2. Amitaprabha 

3. Gaganagaftja 

4. Sarvanivara$avi$kambhi 

The gates in the four directions and intermediate corners, above and below, 
are occupied by the ten Krodha deities, somewhat differently named in this 
Mai?<;lala : 

x, Yamlntaka East 

2. Aparijita South 

3. Hayagrfva West 

4. Amrtakui?4ali North 

5. Acala Bina 

6. Takkirtja Agni 

7* Nllada^<ia Naiirta 

8. Mahabala V&yu 

9. Sumbharaja Above 
io, Vajrapatala Below 

The parental DhySlni Buddhas of the respective deitie* are Indicated and 
the information is classified as under :~~~ 



Kula 
i* Mafljuvajra 

Matijiwtjr* 

i* Ak^obhya 

a. Ratnasambhava 

3. Amitabha 

4. Amoghasiddhi 

5. Locant 

6. Cunda 



x. M&maki 

as* Sattvavajii 

3. Maitreya 

4. Mafiju&r! 

5. Gandhahasti 



60 

6. Jfianaketu 

7. Yamantaka 

8. Aparajita 

9. Hayagrlva 
10. Amrtakuijdall 
ir. Acala 

12. Takkiraja 

13. Nlladancja 
. 14, MaMbala 

15. Sumbharaja 

1 6. Vajrapatala 

Ratnasambhava Kula 

1. Ratnavajrl 

2. Ratnolka 

3. Bhadrap.la 

4. Sagaramati 

5. Akayamati 

6. Pratibhanaktita 

AmiWbka Kula 



2., Dharmavajrl 

3. BhrkutI 

4. Mahasthamapri.pta 

5. Sarvapayafijaha 

6. Sarvaokatamonirghatamati 

7. Jalinlprabha 

Amoghasiddhi Kula 

1. Tara 

2. Karmavajri 

3. Vajra^rnkhala 

4. Candraprabha 

5. Amitaprabha 

6. Gaganagafija 

7. Sarvanivaranavi^kambhi 

21. DharmadhatuV&giivara 
In this Ma$4ala the central deity is Maftjughof a, a form of Malijulrl with 
four faces and eight arms carrying different symbols.. A, -surprisingly large 
number of deities is included in this Mai?4ala, almost a*. elaborate as the 
Kalacakramaijtjala to be described later. 



In the first circle, there are the eight Uril?a deities in the four directions 
and four corners : 

1. Mahon!a 

2. Sitatapatra Unfa 

3. TejoraSi Unlsa 

4. Vijayos$Ia 

5. Vikiraiia Uril$a 

6. Udgata 

7. Mahodgata 

8. Ojas Unia 

Beyond this in the four directions are the Dhy&ni Buddhas on their 
distinctive vehicles: 

No. Name Direction Vehicle 

i. Akobhya East Elephant 

, a. Ratnasambhava South Horse 

3. Amitftbha West Peacock 

4. Amoghasiddhi North Garuda 

In the four intermediate corners are to be found the four Buddha^aktis: 

1 . LocanI 

2. MSmakf 
3. 

4. 
The gates of the first circle are occupied by the following : 

i, Vajr&ftku&a East 

, 2. VajrapMa South 

3. Vajrasphota West 

4. Vajr&ve3a North 

In the second circle in the eastern direction from the lina corner are 
the twelve Bhdmis or he*v*n : 

1. Adhimukticaryi, 

2. Pramuditi 

3. Vimal& 

4* Prabhlkarl 
5* Arcifmatl 

6, SudOrjay& 

7. Abhumukhf 
8* DufaAgami 

9. Acalt 

10, S&dhumatf 
zi, Dharmamegha 
12. Samantaprabha 



62 

In the southern direction another set of twelve Paramiti deities are 
arranged : 

i Ratnaparamita 

2. Danaparamita 

3. S'flaparamita 

4. Kantiparamita 

5. Viryaparamita 

6. Dhyanaparamita 

7 . Prajfiaparamita 

8. Upayaparamita 

9. Pranidhanaparamita 
10. Balaparamita 

ir. Jnanaparamita 

12. Vajrakarmaparamita 

In 'the western direction there is a further set of twelve deities, known as 
the twelve Vaitas : 

1. Ayur VaiitI 

2. Citta VaSita, 

3. Parikara Va&ti 

4. Karma 

5. Upapatti 

6. rfddhi 

7. Adhimukti Va^ita 

8. Prar^idhana 

9. Jftana 
10. Dharma 
n. Tathata 

12. Buddhabodhiprabha 
In the northern direction likewise there is another set of peculiar deities 
called the Dhri$I deities, twelve in number:- 

1. Sumati 

2, Ratnolka 
3. 

4. 
5. 

6. Jangulf 

7. Anantamukhl 

8. Cunda 

9. Prajftavardhanl 

lo, SarvakarmavarapavteodhanI 



6 3 

J2, SarvabuddhadharmakoiavatI 

The gates of the second circle are occupied by a set of four deities, called 
Pratisamvits : 

1. Dharraa Pratisamvit East 

2. Artha Pratisamvit South 

3. Nirukti Pratisamvit West 

4. Pratibh^na Pratisamvit North 

The intermediate corners are occupied by a further set of four goddesses ;~r 

1. Lisya Agni 

2. Mala Nairfta 

3. Glta 

4. Nrtya 

In the third circle round the principal shrine of Maftjughoa, there appears 
a set of Sixteen Bodhisattvas, four in each cardinal direction ; 

I, East 
i* Samantabhadra 

2. Akayarnati 

3, K^itigarbha 
4* Ak3tagarbha 

a. South 

5. Gaganagaftja 

6. Ratnapai^i 

7. S^garamati 
8* Vajragarbha 

3, Wai 
9* Avalokite^vara 

10. Mah$thlmapr&pta 
zx* Candraprabha 
ia. JlHnlprabha 

4, North 

13, Amitaprabha 

14, Pratibhlnakftfa 

15, Sarvaiokatamonirghltamati 
x6, Sarvanivarai?avikambhi 

The gates are occupied by the ten Krodha deities, four in the principal 
directions, four in the corners, one above and one below, as under : 

1, Yamtotaka East 

2, PrajMntaka South 

3, Padm&ntaka West 

4, Vighnlntakt Horth 



5. Trailokyavijaya 
' 6, Vajfajv3Mnal5rka Agni 

7. Herukavajra Nairfta 

8. PararfciSva Vayu 

9. U$I$acakravarti Above 
10. Sumbharaja Below 

In the corners of the third circle there appear eight deities, two in each 
corner, one to the right and the other to the left : 

1. Pu$pa Right 

2. Dhupa 

3. Dlp *> 

4. GandhS. >, 

5. 'Vajrarftpa 1 Left 

6. VajraSabda ,, 

7. Vajrer$ya , 

8. Vajraspar& - , 

the fourth circle there are eight deities, four in the principal directions 
and four others in the corners. They have each a distinctive vehicle : 

1. Indra East Aittvata 

2. Yama South Buffalo 

3. Varu^a West Makara 

4. Kubera North Man 

5. lana Iana Bull 

6. Agni Agni Goat 

7. Nairfti Nairrta Corpse 

8. Vayu Vayu Deer 

Beyond the fourth circle there is a regular congregation of deities, mostly 
belonging to Hinduism. In the group are included the well known and famous 
gods of the Hindu Pantheon, their Saktis and other goddesses, the planets, 
serpents, Asuras, Yakas and the constellations. The whole list is given 
below : 

i. Hindu Gods 15 

1. Brahma on Swan 

2. Vi$u on Garu$a 

3. Mahevara on Bull 

4. Karttikeya on Peacock 

5. Barhma$! 
6* Rudra$! 



7. 

8, Kaumarl 



9- 


Indr.#r~*'" 


10. 


Varahl 


ii. 


Camu^4^ 


12. 


BhrngI 


*3- 


Gai?apati 


14, 


Mah&k&la 


*5. 


Nandike.4vara 


I. 


Aditya 


2. 


Candra 


3, 


MaAgala 


4- 


Budha 


5- 


Brhaspati 


6. 


Sukra 


7- 


Sanai^cara 


8. 


Rglhu 


9* 


Ketu 




3^ i 


I. 


Balabhadra 


2* 


Jayakara 


3* 


Madhukara 


4- 


Vasanta 




4* 


I* 


Ananta 


2* 


VEsuki 


3- 


Tak^aka 


4* 


Karkkotaka 


5* 


Padma 


6. 


Mahipadma 


7- 


S'aj^khapala 


8. 


Kulika 




5- 


I, 


Vemacitri 


a* 


Bali 


3* 


Pralb&da 


4, 


Vairocana tc* 


5* 


Garu4^d ra 


6, 


Kinnarajendra 


>7. 


Pafica^ikha 



on Owl 
on 



on Motase 



2. Planets 9 

on chariot: drawn jby j^even 

on Swan 

on Goat 

on 3Lotws 

on Frog or Skull 

on Lotus 

on Tortoise 



Balabhadra Group 4 

on Elephant 
on Kokila chariot 
on Suka chariot 
on Plavaftga 

Strptni 



A sura Kings~-~ 8 



Sarv^rthasiddha, 



King of 
King of 



66 

6, Y<*h$a Kings i&iih Hariti p 



x. PCirijabhadra. 

2. M&pibhadra. 

3. Dhanada 

4. Vairavaraa 
5. 



Sukhendra 

Calendra 

Harm 



I. A^vinl 

2. 

3, 

4* Rohii^I 

5 . Mfga^ira 

6, ArdrS, 

y. Punarvasu 

8, 



xo. Maghai 

XX. 

X2, TJttaraphalgunl 

13. HastSL 

14* Citr& 

15. Sv5LtJ 

x6. Vi^khSL 

1:7, AnurSLdlia 



MQla 



S'rava^iS. 



24. 

25* Purvabh3.drapa.dS. 



RevatI 



Interesting details are given in -thfe Man^ala with rtgfard' to tihe parenl 
Dhyani Buddha of the different deities constituting the Mafijuvajra Manual 
The information may be summarised as follows under the different heads i 
parental Buddhas : 

1, Vajrasaitva Kula 
i, Maftjughoa, the principal deity 

2. Mafijughofa Kula 

1. Ak$obhya and others numbering four. 

2. Unl$a 

3. Locana 

3. Ak$obhya Kula 

1. Vajrasattva and three others 

2. MamakI 

3. VajrSnku^a 

4. Twelve BhCimis 

5. Dharma Pratisamvit 

6. Lasya 

7. Samantabhadra and three others 

8. Ten Krodhas 



9, 

10. Rftpa 

11. AH Eastern Deities 

4. Rainasatnbkava Kula 

1. Vijraratna and three others 

2. VajrapaSa 

3. Twelve Paramitts 
4* Artha Pratisamvit 

5. Ma 

6. Gaganaganja and three others 

7. DhUpa 

8. S'abda 

9. All Southern Deities 

5* 

1. Vajradharma and three others 



3, Vajrasphota 

4, Twelve VaJitft* 

5, Nirakti Pratisamvit 



68 

.>:$, ' AvatoJuta and tftirae others 



9,.. Rasa 

10. All Western Deities 

6; Amoghasi&dHi 

1. Vajrakarma and three others 

2. Vajravea . . 

3. Twelve Dhariijls 

4. Pratibhana Pratisamvit 
5* Njtya 

6. Amitaprabha and three others 

7. Gandhi 

8. SparSl 

9. All Northern Deities 

22. Dttrgatiparifodkana 

This is the Mai^ala of Durgatiparitodhana or the " remover of misfor- 
tunes," a special epithet of Sakyasimha. Sakyasimha is fcere identified with 
Vairocana with the Dharmacakra, murJU 

In the first circle he is surrounded by eight U$&Sa deities fwr to the card- 
inal directions and four in the intermediate corners : 

1. Vajronla East : 

2. Ratno$iiia South 

3. Padmo?^il?a West 

4. Vi$vonl$a ' ' North 

5. Tejola Agni 

6. Dhvajo$Ia Nairfta 

7. Tlknoi?ia Vayu 

8. Chhatrojjla I^ina 
Beyond this circle in the corners are the following; 

1. Lasya 

2. Mala 
3- Gita 
4. Nrtya 

The four gates in the four ^cardinal directions have in each two Bodhi- 
sattvas in the right and two in the left:' Thus there are sixteen Bodhisattvas, 
four in each direction, thus: * ? j "* 

i. East 

1. Maitreya 

2. Amoghadari 

3. ApaySfijaha ; 



2, South 

i, Gandhahasti 
2.- Suraftgama 

3, Gaganagaflja 

4. Jflanaketu 

1. Amjrtaprabha '..'' 

2, Candraprabha 

3, BhadrapUla 

4. J&Iinfprabha 

4, North 
i, Vajragarbha 
2* Ak^ayamati 

3, Pratibhanak&ta 

4. Samantabhadra 

In the intermediate corners of the Ma$$ala appear :- 
i. 



3- 

4, Gandhi 

The doors of the Ha^cjiala are occupied by : 
i Vajr&rtkusa East 

2. Vajrapt&a South 

3. Vajrasphofa West 

4. Vajr&ve^a North 

A further series of deities is placed in the Ha$$ala, They have a Vihan 
and a Sakti and appear mostly as Hindu deities. The number is large : 

I* Principal God$ 5 

No, Deity Sakti Vehicle 

r *, Ntlaka$tha ,* Bull 

2. Vi|^u Vajrahemi Garu4& 

3. Vajraghajgtt^ Kaumarl Peacock 

4. Maunavajra Vajrai&nti Swan 

5 # Vajr&yudha Vajramu^ti Elephant 

2, Plmete g 
i, Vairakufldal! VairSmjrtS Chfdrlot drawn t 



2. Vajraprabha 

3, VajrapiAgala ...,, Vajfew^kW* 



4- 


Vajrasaumya 


5- 


Vajraguru 


6, 


Vajraukra 


7- 


Vajradaij<Ja 


8. 


Vajrarahu 


9- 


Vajraketu 




3. V 


i. 


Vajra$aun<Ja 


2. 


Vajramala 


3- 


Vajravamsa 


4* 


Vijayavajra 


5- 


Vajramu^ala 




4- E 


i. 


Vajranala 


2. 


Vajrakala 


3- 


Vajra6ku5a 


4- 


N.gavajra 


$ 


Vajranila 


6. 


Vajrabhairava 




5. M 


i. 


Vajravinakaya 


2. 


Putana 


3- 


Bhlma 


4- 


Sri 


5- 


SarasvatI 



Vajrasaurayt 

GuruvajrS. 

Sukravajrl 



Lotus 



Lotus 
Tortoise 



Elephant 
Kokila chariot 
White chariot 
Frog 
Flower chariot 



Goat 
Buffalo 



Makara 
Deer 

Ghost 



Vajrlsurl 
Vajrangl 

Vajraauy4a Group 5 

Vajravinayl 

Vajrasani, 

Vajravam^L 

Vajrasenl 

VajradStl 

Deities of Quarters 6 

Vajrajvali 
Vajraktli 
Vajramukhl 
Vajramakara. 
Vegavajiipl 
Vajravikati 
Miscellaneous Group 6 

Rat 
Rat 



6. SimhadurgS 

Beyond these there are others like Pjthvl, the Asuras, the goblins birds, 
men and others steeped in AvidyL, 

The information regarding parental DhySni Buddhas contained in the 
* L may be summarised thus : 

i. Vairocana 
i., Mahavairocana Sakyasimha 

2. M ah&vairocana 
. i^ yajro^f?a and three others 

3- 

Eastern Deities 
Deities ir 



r. 



4, 

1. Southern Deities 

2. Deities in the Nairjta corner. 

5. Padmo$ni$ 

1. Western Deities 

2. Deities in the V&yu corner, 

6, Vivonl$a 

1. Northern Deities 

2. Deities in the lna corner, 

23. Bh&to$$mara 

The central figure in this Ma$$ala is the fierce deity BhtSta$mara one- 
faced and four-armed. 

In the first circle in different chambers there are eight deities in the eight 
quarters : 

i* Maheivara East 

2* Vi$$u South 

3. Brahmt West 

4. Kftrttikeya North 

5. Gaiiapati I^Lna 

6. Aditya Agni 

y* Rlhu Naiijta 

8* Nandi Vyu 

In the second ring there are again eight goddesses in the eight quarters: 

i* Sri East 

a, Tilottaml South 

3, Sail West 

4* Um& North 

5. Ratnairf Agni 

6 Sarasvatl N^irrta 

j. Surasundar! V|lyu 

'8. Vibhfiti ISina 
In the third rfng there is a set of deities, presiding over the 

i. Sakra East 

a* Yama South 

3, Varu$a Wet 

4, Kuberm North 

5. Agai Aga! 

6. Naiitta Nalffts 



7< 

8. Candra 

In the fourth circle there is a ftirtber set of eigfat goddtessefe, four in the 
four principal directions and f our m the fottr intermediate corners : 

1. Simhadhvajadharin! East 

2. Vibhuti South 

3. PadmavatI : . . West 

4. Surahariril North 

5. Varaharir;! I.na 

6. RatneSvari Agrri 

7. Bhu^ana ' Nakyta 

8. -Jagatpalinl V&yu ,; , : 

24. Panca$&ka Mandala 

This is the Mandala of the five Daka deities corresponding to the five 
Dhyani Buddhas, with different forms and symbols, and each associated with a 
Sakti. Anyone of the five Daka gods may the be presiding deity of the Ma^ala 
according to the need. Here however Vajradaka happens to be the principal 

god. 

i. Vajra$aka 

The first and the central chapel is occupied by Vajradaka wh6 is surround- 
ed by eight goddesses in the eight quarters : 

1. Gauri : East 

2. Vetaii 

3. Caurl 

4. Ghasmarl 

5. Pukkasi I^ana 

6. Sabari 

7- 

8, 

The chapel to the east is occupied by Buddha<Jka. To his right and 
left appear eight skulls containing different animals. Buddha<J&ka is surrounded 
fey eigiht gbaaf^is in the eight quarters : 

1. Sandam^L East 

2. Pa^inl 

3. Vagura 

4- 
5- 



73 

7. Dipa 

8. GandhS 

3. Ratnagdka 

In the Southern chape! is placed the third P&ka god known as Ratna$&ka. 
On the eight skulls to the right there are eight different birds, while on the eight 
skulls to the left there appear eight serpents of which only seven names are to 
be found in the text. Ratna^ljlka is likewise surrounded by eight goddesses in 
the eight quarters; 

1. Suryahastft East 

2. Dlpa 

3. EatnolkH 

4. Ta<Jitkar 

5. L&syft Btna 

6. Mala 

7. GUI 

8. Nftya 

4, Padm&4&kn 

In the Western chapel is placed the fourth plka god, namely, Padma^fUca, 
Eight skulls on the right and eight on the left hold a variety of animals and 
birds. Padmacjaka is also surrounded by eight goddesses in the eight quarters 
as in the case of others : 

1. Padmi East 

2. Dharmodayl 

3. Sphoti 
4. 

5, 

6, 

7* Mukundi 

8* Muraji 

5, 

In the Northern chapel appear the fifth pika god named as 
The skulls on the right hold the planets, Budha, Brh*pati, Ketu, Rahu, 
Maftgala, Sukra, Sanaifcara and Viou The skulls to the left hold Indra, 
Brahma, Rudra f Kmadeva f Balabhadra, K^apai?aka Vemacitri, and Bali. 
Like others VUvagaka is alto surrounded by eight goddesses in the eight 

quarters : 

1. Tatika East 

2, Kufld 



74 

6. Mamaki 

7. Pandara 

8. Tara 

It is hardly necessary to slate that these akas are nothing but prototypes 
of the five Dhyani Buddhas, and may be identified as under : 

No. Daka Dhyani Buddha 

1. Vajradaka Akobhya 

2. Buddha<Jaka Vairocana 

3. Ratnadaka Ratnea 

4. Padmadaka Amitabha 

5. Vivadaka Ampghasiddhi 
25. Satcakravarti Mandala 

This Mandala is devoted to the six Cakravartis or overlords and describes 
the five Dhyani Buddhas along with the sixth Dhyani Buddha Vajrasattva. 
In this Mandala Vajrasattva is the central deity, and is surrounded by the 
five Dhyani Buddhas and their companions. These Dhyani Buddhas are here 
named as Daka gods. The table below gives the Daka names of the Dhyani 
Buddhas. 

No Dhyani Buddha Daka Name 

1. Vajrasattva Jfiana^aka 

2. Vairocana Buddhaclaka 

3. Ratnea Ratnadaka 

4. Amitabha Padmadaka 

5. Aksobhya Vajradaka 

6. Amoghasiddhi Vilva^aka 

In the central chapel on a white lion sits Vajrasattva Jftana^aka. He is 
accompanied by his Sakti in close embrace. The Sakti is named variously as 
Jnanadakinl, Vajradhvatvigvari or Vajravarahl, 

The four cardinal points are occupied by : 

1. DakinI 

2. Lama 

3. Khandaroha 

4. Rupini 

The doors of the chapel are occupied by : 

1. Khan^akapala 

2. Mahakarikala 

3. Vikata 

4. Damtnn 

The second chapel is devoted to Vairocana Buddha<Jaka on a lion closely 
locked in eijil?race with his $akti 



75 

The doors are occupied by four gods accompanied with their Saktis a 
under : - 

Gods Saktis 

1. Suriivairl Vlramatl 

2. Amitabha Kharbarl 

3. Vajraprabha Laftkevarl 

4. Vajradeha Drumacchaya 

The third chapel is dedicated to RatneSa Ratna^aka on a horse who i 
locked in embrace with his Sakti RatnadakinL 

The doors are occupied by four gods who in their turn are accompanie< 
with their Saktis as under : 

Gods Saktis 

1. Arikurika Airavatf 

2. Vajrajatila Mahabhairava 

3. Mah&vlra Vayuvegi. 

4. Vajrahuftkara Sun\bliak! 

The fourth chapel is dedicated to Amitabha Padma^aka who Is in clos< 
embrace with las Sakti Padma^tkinl. 

The doors are occupied by four gods accompanied with their aktis a: 
under : 

Gods Saktis 

1, Subhadra Syimi.de vl 

2, Vajraprabha Subhadri 

3, Mahabhairava HayakamU 

4, VirGp,ka Khagi,nan& 

The fifth chapel is dedicated to Ak$obhya Vajra^ilka who is close embrace 
with his Sakti Vajra<Jk5nL 

The doors are occupied by four gods with their Saktis as below : 

Gods Saktis 

i* Mahabala Cakraveg& 

2, Ratnavajra Kha^aroh 

3, Hayagrlva aui?glinl 

4, AkMagarbha Cakravarmi^l 

The sixth chapel is dedicated to Amoghasiddhi Viiva^ftka who is lockec 
in embrace with his Sakti Vi^va^i^kinl* 

The doors are occupied by four gods along with their Saktis as below ; 

Gods Saktis 

i Heruka Sovlri 

2, Padmanartte^vara Blah&bali 



7 6 

3. Vairocana Cakravartinl 

4. Vajrasattva Mahavirya 

The gates of the whole Mandala are guarded by the four deities with 
animal faces: 

1. Kakasya 

2. Ulukasya 

3. Svanasya 

4. Sukarasya 

The corners of the great Marsala are occupied by another set of four 
deities as under : 

1. Yamadahl 

2. Yamaduti 

3. Yamadamstn 

4. Yamamatham 

26. Kalacakra Mandala 

The central deity in this Mandala is Kalacakra of a complex and very 
peculiar appearance with three necks, six shoulders, four faces and twelve 
principal arms, and twenty-four thousand subsidiary arms. A special Tantra, 
namely the Kalacakra Tantra is dedicated to his worship. The Kalacakra Tantra 
is almost entirely in verse, and it has a very lengthy commentary entitled the 
Vimalaprabha* If circumstances are favourable in the future both these works 
will be published in the Gaekwad's Oriental Series. From certain passages in 
the Vimalaprabha it appears probable that the Kalacakra was designed to bring 
the warring elements of the Hindus and the Buddhists under the banner of one 
god Kalacakra against the cultural penetration of the aliens, notably the 
Mlecchas. 

In the Mandala the central deity Kalacakra is locked in embrace with his 
Prajna who is named here as Vi^vamata. Under the feet of the principal god 
appear Kamadeva, Rudra, Rati and GaurL 

In the first circle, surrounding the couple appear the following four god* 
desses in the four cardinal directions : 

Goddess Direction 

1. Krriadipta East 

2. Raktadlpta South 

3. Pitadfpta West 

4. Svetadlpta North 

The corners are occupied by a further set of four deities as below; 

1. Dhuma 

2. Marlci 

3. Pratlpa 

4. Khadyota 



77 

In the second circle, beyond the first are installed the following four Dhyar 
Buddhas each locked in embrace with his respective PrajM; 

No. Dhyani Buddha Prajfia Direction 

1. Amoghasiddhi Locana East 

2. Rathasambhava MamakI South 

3. Vairocana Tara West 

4. Amitabha Pandara North 

In the third circle, there are four gates, and the two sides of each gate 
are occupied by Bodhisattvas with their Saktis. 

East 

1. Samantabhadra-Dharmavajra Left 

2, Khagarbha-Gandbavajra Right 

South 

1. Vajrapa^i-Sabdavajra Left 

2. K^itigarbha-Rupavajra Right 

West 

1. Dharmadhituvajra-SamantabhadrS Left 

2. Sarvanivaraii^viskambhi-Spargavajni Right 

North 

i Vajrap&i?i-fiabdavajrii Left 

2. Lokegvara-RasavajrH, Right 

In the four corners, there are four goddesses accompanied by their male 
counterparts, as below : 

i. Agni Corner 

Goddess Coun terpart 

Spar^ava jrft Sarvani vara^avi^kambh i 



Corner 
Rasavajrl Loke^vara 

3* V&yu Corner 

Gandhavajri Khagarbha 

4, l$na Corner 

Rfipava j ri K?it igar bha 

The doors are cccupied by the Krodha deities each accompanied i>y his 
female counterpart, 



78 

1. East 

Deity Sakti 

.1, Atibala Starabfaakf 

2. South 

z t Jambhaka , , M&raakl 

3. West 

3'. Stambhaka Atiball 

4. North 

4. Manaka Jambhak! 

The four main deities are also known by their popular names of Vighnlntaka 
( i ), Prajnantaka ( 2 ), Yamantaka ( 3 ), and Padmlntaka ( 4 ). 

On the eastern altar at the foot of the archJB there are pillars. To the 
right and left of each pillar there are goddesses : 







Eastern Pillars 


1, 

2. 


Gandha 
Mala 


Left 
Right 






Southern Pillars 


I. 
2. 


Dhupa 
Dipa 


Left 
Right 






Western Pillars 


I. 
2. 


Lasya 
Hasya 


Left 
Right 






Northern Pillars 


I. 
2. 


Amita 
Hala 


Left 
Right 



On all the altars there are innumerable and a variety of Dhadnl, PCijS 
and Naivedya deities, in the four directions. The principal ones are these :-~ 

1. Njiya Eastern arch 

2. K&ma Southern arch 

3. VadyS Western arch 

4. Glta Northern arch 

In the Vanman<Jala there are lotuses in the eight quarters and these are 
occupied by deities. The lotuses have eight petals and these are occupied by 
their companions, 



79 

I* East on Lotus 

Carcika with Indra on corpse. 
On eight petals. 

1. Bhlmi. 

2. Ugra 

3. Kaladarnstra 

4. Jvalanmukha 

5. Vayuveg, 

6. Pracanda 

7. Raudraksl 

8. Sthulanasa 

II. Agni Corner on Lotus 

Vaifpavl with Brahma on Garucja 
On eight petals 

x, Sri 

2. Maya 

3. Kfrtti 

4. Lakml 

5. Vijaya 

6- Srfjayantf 
7. Srlcakrf 
8. 

III. South on Lotus 

V&r&hl with Rudra on Buffalo, 
On eight petals. 

1. Ka^kail 

2. Ktlaratri 

3. PrakupitavadanSL 
4* 

5. 

6. Ghort 

7. VirQpa 
8. 

IV* Natrfia on Lotus 

Kaum&rl with Ga$ea on Peacock* 
On eight petals 

i. Padma 

2. 



So 

3. Kaumari 

4. Mjrgapatigamana 

5. Ratnamala 

6. Sunetra 

7. Lin a 

8. Subhadra 

V. West on Lotus 

Aindrl with INTairrti on. Airavata. 
On eight petals. 

1. Vajrabha 

2. Vajragatra 

3. Kanakavatl 

4. Orva^i 

5. Citralekha 

6. Rambha 

7. Ahalya 

8. Sutara 

VI. Vayu on Lotus 

Brabmani with Visnu on S^van. 
On eight petals. 

1. Savitri 

2. Padmanetrl 

3. Jaladavati 

4. Buddhi 
5- Vak 

6. l^varf 

7. Gayatri 

8. Vidyutsmrti 

VII. North on Lotus 

Raudri with Yama on Bull- 
On eight petals. 
i* Gauri 

2. Ganga 

3. -Nitya 

4. Tvarita 

5. Totala 

6. Lakai?a 

7. Pingala 
8. 



8i 

VIII. l8na on Lotus 

Laksmi with Kartiikeya on Lion. 

On eight petals. 

1. Sri 

2. Candralekha 

3. aadharavadana 

4. Harnsavarna 
5- Dhrti 

6. Padme^a 

7. Turanetra 

8. Vimala&asadhara 

Beyond this there is another circle called the Kayaman^lala containing 
deities pertaining mostly to time* In the central lotus in the middle are to be 
found the deities Purnima ( Full Moon } and Amavasya ( New Moon ) as prin- 
cipal ones representing Prajfta and Up&ya. They are surrounded by the Tithi 
Devls beginning from Pratipada. to CaturdailL 

The quarters are occupied by another set of gods locked in embrace with 
their Prajfii or female counterparts on a distinctive vehicle. Different months 
are attributed to each of these as presiding deities, 

i. East, Right side 

Nairfti with R&ka&L Red Corpse 

All days in the month of Caitra, 

2. Agni 

Vyu with Pracanda. Deer 

All days in the month of Vaikha, 

3, South, Left side 

Yama with K!f. Buffalo 

All days in the month of Phalguna. 

4, South, Right side 

Agni with Varu;qa, Ram* 

All days in the month of 

5. 

anmukha with LakmL Peacock, 

All days in the month of A?$ha, 

6. West, Left side 

Kubera with KauberL Elephant, 

All days in the moflth of 



8a 



Elephant. 



Swan, 



Bull, 



Makara. 



Rat. 



Garucla. 



7, West, Right side 

Sakra with V&savl, 

All days in the month of As" vina. 

8. V&yn 

Brahma with Vidyut. 
All days in the month of Karttika. 

9. North, Left $ide 

Rudra with GaurL 

All days in the month of M&rga!rsa. 

10. North, Right side 

Samudra with Varaln. 

All days in the month of Sravana. 

II. Hana 

Gar^eSa with Kaumari. 
All days on the month of Bhadrapada. 

12. East, Left $ide 

Visnu with Sri. 

All days in the month of Magha. 

The gates are occupied by the Krodha deities each accompanied by his 
appropriate counterpart in the six quarters as under : 

1. East 
Niladanda with Marie! 

2. South 
Takkiraja with Cunda 

3* West 
Mahabala with Vajras^nkhalS, 

4, North 
Acala with Bhfku^I 

5, Above 
Ur>IsacakravartI with Atinlla 

6, Below 

Sumbharaja with RaudrakJ Tiger chariot 

Between the pillars of the altar arches, there are the Snake-gods along 
with their f em; ate counterparts :* 



Pig chariot 
Horse chariot 
Elephant chariot 
Lion chariot 
Garucla chariot 



1. East. Vayu Mandala 

1. Padma left with Svanasya 

2. Karkkota right with Kakasya. 

2. South. Vahni Mandala 

1. Vasuki left with SukarSsya 

2. Sarikhapala right with Grdhrasya. 

3- West. Prthvi Mandala 

1. Takaka left with Jambukasya 

2. Mahapadma right with Garutfasya 

4. North. Jala Mangala 

1. Ananta left with Vyaghrsya 

2. Kulika right with Ulukasya 

5. Above. &%nya Mandala 
i. Jaya with Nfl& 

6. Below. $&nya Mantfata 
I. Vijaya with Vajrak?!. 

Between the Agni and V^yu Mai^^alas, there are the great cremation 
grounds. Wheels of eight spokes each are placed on the ground, and each is 
occupied by deities, four in the principal directions, four in the corners, one 
above and one below : 

i. Cardinal Directions 

1. Svanisyt East 

2. Sukarisya" South 

3. Jambukisya West 

4. Vyghrsyi North 

2, Corners 

1. KakSsyl Agni 

2. Grdhrasyi, 

3. Garutf&syt 



3* Above 
x, Anili 

4. Bdow 
i. Vajraksl 



84 

In these very cremation grounds, there are four mandalas and in them 
there are the planets in the four directions and corners : 

i* V&yu 



I. 


Candra 


East 


2, 


Surya 


Agni 






2. Agni Mangala 


I. 


Budha 


South 


2* 


Mangala 


Nairfta 






3. Pfthvt Mandala 


I. 


Ketu 


West 


2. 


anaicara 


Vayu 






4, Toy a Mandala 


I. 


Sukra 


North 


2. 


Brhaspati 


ISana 



5. Sftnya Mandala 

1. Rahu Above 

2, Kalagni Below 

Besides the above in the Vayu Mandala, there are innumerable deities, 
such as Dhruva, Agastya, 28 Naksatras, 12 Rais, 16 Kalas, 10 Dikpalas, Nandi, 
Mahakala, Ghantakarna, BhriigJ, Ksetrapalas, Dutfs, Hariti and all Siddhis, 
besides innumerable beings. 

In the altars constituting the VarimaiTtdala, there is a series of special 
deities called Icchadevis or Deities of Desire, According to the V ' imalaprabhfi 1 
all desires originate from the Yoginls, and their forms are given here in brief, 

The altars belonging to the Vanmandala are occupied by a series of 
Icchadevis or deities of desires, to the right and left of the gates of the different 
directions. 

i. East 

( a ) right side 

1, Vidveseccha 

2, Am^ukeccha 

3, Kayakancluyaneccha 

4, Vadanakaphotsarjaneccha 

5, Uccataneccha 

( b ) left side 

1. Santapaneccha 

2. Spareccha 

l . p. 92. where the relevant quotation from Vimalaprabkd appears. .; 



3, 



x. 



3 



( 1> ) left sidle 
x. 



3, 

3, 
( a. ) 



3. 



left 
x, 



3. 



x. 
tz. 
3. 

-4, 

S- IVI r<3lu.va.ca.necoh^L 

( fc> ) left side 
x, 
ia* 
3, 



Separate descriptions of these Icchadevls are not given in the K&lacakra 
Mandala, but they are compared to certain deities whose descriptions are record- 
ed either here or elsewhere in the book, ,#. 

Vidveeccha is like TSira 
ArhSukeccha is like Spar&vajra 
Kayakanduyaneccha is like Camunda, and so on. 

With regard to parental Dhyani Buddhas the Manila gives the interesting 
information that the deities mostly should be classified according to colour. 
But the colour scheme of the Kalacakra School materially differs from that of 
the established usage. The information is summarised below: 

Coloured Deity Dhy&ni Buddhas 

1. Black Deities Amoghasiddhi 

2. Red Deities Ratnasambhava 

3. Yellow Deities Vairocana 

4. White Deities Amitabha 



t v 



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here is the Kula symbol " Vajra 
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seems to be $*rar instead of ^^r i d^^ is appropriate as she is the 
female counterpart of Vairocana. 5B% 6B^ 7B 5r 8Cf 
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adds $i$^^ *pri^^ 178 

20 BJTR* 21 B 5* 



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18 



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22 B 



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16 B %?IT, 



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9 B omits the Bija C wrongly states afr 10 C adds aft ii B omits 
12 B "WIT* 13 omits 




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6 B omits n* to N#w 7 B omits 8 B omits gB'w 10 B 
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15 B 0] ^ 16 B *wT 17 B omits 18 B * 



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ri nC^g i2B e ?r:!ir e 138 omits fi 9 14 B'^' 15 B 
16 B omits "IOTW" 17 B " 



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i B omits a B omits 3 B omits 4 B "ft: 5 only in C 6 B 
7 B omits vro*fl * 8 B JfRift 1 or mwfl' 9 B omits nk 10 In B ? 
iw only it C adds m* 12 not in B 13 B vz 14 C "or 15 C 



jfrm ^an FRn*^ ^N WF< 77* 



wit i^i ?[5Tifgwiw : i 



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13 not in B. 



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16 B omits *<iro* 17 B *w mm: 18 C adds 



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8 B 8 fnis 9 not in B 10 not in B n not in B 12 not in B 13 B 
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5 ^ ^ *j^ti * 7 wwferwt 8 B *<mnf 9 B fi ii 



10 B ^r 11 B *ff 12 B * 



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gap at this poiat. For the bracketted portion C is our only guide. 



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9 B *w ' 10 B * ift zx B ww* 12 B omits 13 B adds JR. 



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n ^Fit^f m 



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omits 12 B omits m 13 C "t* 14 B omits *?HN*. 



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portion* a C resumes after tMs, 



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B adds after the name of the author the following: 

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INDEX 



n, 



Vt, M, 



<:<: 



( "N ) 



IRfl 



V9 



-W 



80, 



>^JV 



_^ 



^ 



^ 



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m 



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AS 

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n, 



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am ' 



tffaft 



m 



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mft 



. % 



n, u, N, 



tfti 



"Fulfil 



^8 

a 



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'TOT 

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W6 11 



6* 

a 



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m 



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30 



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-win 



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a 



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u 



u 
u 



UK 



<: 



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OTI 



, a, vs, <:, 



VA, 



w,^*,^ U, 6 



"XV, "t'A, 



V* 



n, u"^ 



VA, 



VA 



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X'',, 'At 

VA, VA, 6^ 



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r*,, v* 



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U, U, 



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(Rf 



APPENDIX 

1 

List of Deities with Sanskrit Names as illustrated in Vol. II of 
TWO LAMAISTIC PANTHEONS by Walter Eugene Clarke. (References 
arc to page numbers ) 



Abh&sara&ni (?) ( Buddha ) 33 

Abh&svara (?) tath&gata 

( Buddha } 34 

Abhayariidada { Bodhisattva ) 169 
Abheda 26, 296 

Abhimukha ( Bodhisattva ) 167 

Abhimukhl 121 

Abhyudgatarftja (Buddha ) 37, 254 
AbhyudgatosQlga (?) ( Bodhisattva) 166 
Acalft n8 

Agni (dava) 87, 165 

Agra { ? ) matirajatath&gata 

( Buddha ) 35 

Ajiu 36, 293 

Akarjapl { ? ) ( devl ) 184 

Akftiagarbha { Bodhistttva } 8, 9, 56, 

273 

Ak&fanctra ( Bodhisattva ) 161 

Ak$ayamati { Bodhisattva ) 132 

Ak$obhya (Buddha) 126, 129, 138, 244 
Akfobhynvajra 58, 168 

Amttftbha 244 

Amit&bha ( Buddha ) 32, 57, 142 
Amitftbhtt ( Bodhisattva ) 147 

Amitlyus 240 

Amitftyus { Buddha ) 188, 216 

Amoghadariin 247 

Amoghadirlin ( Buddha } 20 

Amoghadittiin ( Bodhisattva ) 243 
Amoghapftia 267 

Amog hapUa*Uvara ( Loke^vara )*-* 

Avaiokileivara ( Bodhisattva ) 220 
Amoghaiiddhi 



Amoghasiddhi ( Buddha ) 32, 56, 115, 

126, 128, 138, 144 

Amoghatriiia ( ? ) Vajraparii 62 
Amoghavikramin ( Bodhisattva ) 192 

Amj"tabmduvajra 58 

Amrtakup<Jalin 311 

Amrtaku^alivajra 75 

Ananda 27, 297 

Anafigavajra ( Bodhisattva ) 220 
Anantasvaraghoa ( Bodhisattva ) 162 

Anantaujas 249 

Anantaujas ( Buddha ) 22 

Aftgaja 36, 292 

AAgSraka 66 

Aftgirodeva ( Bodhisattva ) 155 

Arikusadhara 51 

AAku^I 94 

AntarasSdhana-Mafijughosa 58, 232 

Anuclrin ( ? ) ( Buddha ) 35, 254 

Aparajita 208, 290 

Aparajita-Tara 278 

Apftyaftjaha ( Bodhisattva ) 143 

ArthadarSin ( Buddha ) 26 

Artha-Pratisamvit 134 

Aryadeva 225 

Arya-jangull 283 

Arya-Sitatapatra 286 

ASoka ( Buddha ) 33 

Atoka^rl 250 

Atokairl ( Buddha ) 22 

Aiokatathagata ( Buddha ) 35 

Alokottamairl 258 
j a-DharmadhtuVagKvar a 



Astabhuja-MaricI 

A^bhuja-Vajratara 

Astadaabhuja-Padmanartevara 

A|akapi-Acala 

A$taml Tithi 

Avajit 

Avaivartikacakra-sambhavari (? ) 

Avaivartika^ricakra ( Buddha ) 

Avalokite^vara (Bodhisattva) 7, 



Ayur-Va&ia 
Ayu?pati-Mahakala 

B 

Bahubhiija-Cundi. ( devf ) 

Bakula 

Bala-Paramiti 

Bhadra 

Bhadrapila ( Bodhisattva } 

Bhadralrf 

Bhadra&rl ( Buddha ) 

Bhadrasvare^vara ( ? ) rfija- 

Maftjugho^a 

Bhagavad-BhayanMana 
Bhagavad-Mah^klla 
Bhairava 
Bhairavavajra 
Bhairavavajra { Buddha } 



285 

^n 
266 



255 
3$ 
n, 
195 
Jj6 
303 



40, 294 
140 

28, 294 
147 

249 
23 



314 
300 

335 
6B 
46 



Bhai^ajyagurutathftgata (Buddha) 34 



Bhayadavajra 
Bhinnaklea ( ? ) ( Buddha } 
Bhramarasvara-Malijulr! ( Bodhi- 
sattva ) 



76 

39 



218 
171 

Bhrkufl ( dev! ) 160 288 

BhUta^mara-Vajrapipi 242 

Bhma$mara-Vajrapipi { Buddha ) 153 
Brahmadatta 248 

Brahmadatta ( Buddha ) 24 

Brahma|yotirvikrl4ittbhijM 



Brahma jyotirvikr!( t lttabhijAA 
( Buddha ) 

Brahman 248, 

Brahman ( Buddha } 

Brahman ( clcva ) 100, 156, 

Br&hmaQ.ir8pa-( MahAkftta ) 

Buclita ( deva ) 

Buddhaixxihi 

Buddhacj&ka {Buddha) 

Budhakapftla 103, 

Budclhakap&U { Budtlha ) 

BuddhalocanA 6i 109, 

Buddho?tf$a I Bodhisattva ) 
C 

Cakradharar5ja { Buddha } 

ClmiurjiJH ( devf ) 

Ca$d**Vijr4pfirn { clum ) 

Cai^ilall 96, 

Candanar! 

Candana^r! { Buddha ) 

Cai^tjikli { dcvl ) 

Candra { dcva } HIJ, 

CandrakAntt (?)-TArA 

Candraketu or Sa4iketu { Buddha } 

Candrakfrtt 

Candraprabha 

Candraprabha ( Bodhitattva ) 

Candra vairocana { Bodhisat tva } 

CarcikA 

OiturbhujaAcala 

Caturbhtija-Acalavajra 



18 
307 

19 
179 
3<c 

83 
138 

95 
237 



i6a 



176 

243 
ito 



Caturbhuja-Avaiokitelvara 190, 
Caturbhujn*AvaloktteivAra ( Bodhi 

sttlva } 

Caturbhuja*CintAmi9icalcraTftrA 
Caturbhuja -CintftmaoirftjAI 
Caturbhuja Cundl (devl) 



23 
307 

182 
276 

33 
237 
axa 
147 
196 

72 
312 
203 
240 
264 



axo 
282 
284 



301 



Caturbhuja-Mattreya 



273 Dharmadhatuvaglgvara (Buddha) 



Catiirwuija-Nlmasamgiti-Maflju- 




115, 124, 241 


gho$a 


263 


Dharmaghoatathagata ( Buddha ) 35 


Cnturbhuja-PrajAApAramttA * 


287 


Dharmaklrti 226 


Caturbhuja-rakta-Avalokit^vara 




Dharmakirtisagaraghoa 259 


(Bodhisattva) 


219 


Dharmamegha 118 


CaUirbhuja*rakta-Lok*vara 


266 


Dharma-Pratisaxhvit 134 


Caturbhtija-V&yu ( deva ) 


'102 


Dharmaraja 70, 302 


Caturmukh&$tabhuja-Hayagr!va~ 




Dharmasagaragra ( ? ) mativikridi- 


vajra 


*93 


tabhijMraja 259 


Caturvirtiiatibhuja-Ekajata ( devf ) 


284 


Dharmavajn 122, 290 


Cnuri 


92 


Dharmavaita 137 


Cfnakrama-Tftrl 


282 


Dhltika 298 


Clna-T&rft 


218 


Dhrtara?tra 306 


CintIma$iAval0kite$vara 


268 


Dhflmavatl ( devi ) 302 


CintAmagicakra-sita-Tarl 


282 


Dhflpa 67, 91 


Ciltpati 


309 


Dhvaj^gra ( ? ) ( Buddha ) 126, 201 


Citrft(?)(devl) 


184 


Dhvajgrakeyura 200, 289 


Cittt-Vtfit* 


*36 


Dhyinibhyudgataraja ( Buddha ) 38 


Cittavi^rlrnai?a-Ava!okitlvara 


268 


Dhyna-Paramit, 117 


fittotpada (adhimukti ?)-Va$ita 


^33 


Dipt 67, 90 


riUutpudacaryabhQmi 


124 


DlpaAkara ( Buddha ) 32 


Cudfiparithaka 40, 


295 


Dfpayugmadhara 88 


Cundl ( See BahubhujI, 


285 


Pom bin! 96 


Caturbhuji) 222, 


284 


Potnbipada 228 






Drdha-PrthivJ (devf) 305 


D 




Duhkhadahana-Tari. 280 






DundubhMvara (Bodhisattva) 194 


pftkin! 97 


238 


Durartgami 121 


Dftna>Paramitft 


120 


Durdantadamaka ( Bodhisattva) 168 


Dap^adhara-Bhairavavajra 48 S 


. 73 


Durgottari$!-Tara 221, 283 


Dw4& [dhara]-llahlkila 


300 


Dfltl (?) or Get! (?) 47 


D;u^,ladhara 


47 


Dvadaia ( deva ) 99 


Dafii^trldh@ra 


47 


DvUda^abhuja-Marlci 207 


Daiabhuja-lflrlc! 222, 


285 


Dv&radhara 108 


DatomI Ttthi 


84 


Dvlratalakadhari 108 


Dhsnada 


291 


Dvibhuja-Dharmadhatuvagl^vara 


DhanackTIrI 


283 


( Buddha ) 221 


Dhanairl ( Buddha ) 18, 


251 


Dvibhuja-Ekajat^ 222 


Dharms ( deva ) 


83 


Dvibhuja-Maitreya 273 


Dharmadhatti 


85 


Dvibhuja-Marlci 285 



20 



Dvibhuja-Padmanartegvara- 

Avalokite^vara 265 

Dvibhuja-Pari?aabarI 287 

Dvibhuja-PrajMramita 287 

Dvibhuja-Pratisarii 289 

Dvibhuja-Srfmatfdevf 302 

Dvibhuja-Vajrasarasvat! 288 

Dyuti (?) (Buddha) i%% 



Ekadaa ( deva ) 99 

Ekdaamukha 268 

Ekadaami3kha-Avalokitevara 

289, 199 
284 
236 
69 



Ekajati, ( dev! ) 

Ekavfra-Bhairava 

Ekavlra-Bhalravavajra 



Gaganagaftja { Bodhisattva ) 

Gaganarlja 

Gai?apati (deva) 

Gandhi 

Gandhahastin ( Bodhisattva ) 

Garbha (?)Hevajra 

Garu$a~Samvara 

Garu^a-Samvararlja ( Buddha ) 



136 
268 

153 
68 
135 
236 
234 
93 
62 

Gaud 72, 92, 105 

Gautamadeva ( Bodhisattva ) 156 

Gavtrhpati a? 

48 



Ghasmarl 92, 100 

Cm 63, 94, 146 

Gopaka 25, 296 

GrahaiBatrka 292 

Guhya-Ak|obhyavajra ( Buddha ) 44 
Guhya-l^vara ( Lokdwara )*Avaloki- 

te^vara 58 

Guhya-Mafljulr! ( Buddha ) 45 n6 f 124 



Guhya*M;iiljuvajra ( Buddha) 45, 54 

G uhyasadhana- Hayagrlva 240 

Guhyasiitlhana-MaAjughosa 261 
Guhytsadhanji"Maftju4if ( Bodhi- 

sattva) 46, 54 

Guhyasamaja-Aksobhyavajra 232 
Guhyasamaja-Loke^vara 



Guhhya-Vajraksobhya ( Buddha ) 
GuQaprabha { Buddha ) 311, 

H 

HAiahala-Lokeivara 

Hariharivhana-Lokevara 

HArltl (deva) 

Hastivhana-Samaniabliadra 

Hayagrlvavajra 59, ifnf, 172, 

Hemantadevf 

Hevajra 

HurhkAravajra 

HurhsvarandinI-TrA 

I 



55 



374 

198 
308 



33 
^77 

%*5 



Indra ( mahynk?.i*nap;ttt ) 

!ndraketudhvaj4 ^5^ 
Iridrakftudhviijarrija (Buddha) 14 

Ir$y*Bhairavavajra 53, 71 

!&vara (deva) 138 
Ilvara ( Loke4vara )*Avilokite4varft 

( Bodhisattva ) aoa 

J 

Jagadclama-ViijrapftQi 134 

Jagadvi { ? )-Tra 178 

J&ltnldharA (?) 94 

Jllinlprabtm (BodhisaUva) 133 

Jllinlprabhakumlra 173 

JAAgulf ^04, 317 

JftAgulI-Tftrft a8i 

Jayl ( devi ) 179 

JayadA 211 

( Buddha ) mg 



Jinamitra 

JsnasAgara-Avalokitegvara 

Jinisi!garaAvalokitevara 

( Buddha ) 
Jiria Vajradhara 
jAunatjAkinf 

jAAnAkara ( Bodhisattva ) 
jAAnaketu ( Bodhisattva } 
JftAna-PAramitA 



303 
K>5 233 

* 82 
232 

237 

192 

'146 



137 

JvAlAnala (?) ( Buddha ) 139 

JvAiAnala ( VajrajvAlAnalftrka ? ) 312 

JvAlAnaio$$!$a ( ? ) ( Buddha ) 130 

Jyoti?prabha { ? ) ( Buddha ) 29 

K 

KAkAsya-KarinanAtha 300 

KAIa 298 

K&lacafcra 233 

KAladhvaja (?) or KAiaketu (?) 47 
KAIadhvaja (?) or KAiaketu ( ? ) 

( devl ) 175 

KAlAgni ( deva ) 98 
KAIikA 28, 293 

Kttma!o$g!$a ( ? ) ( Buddha ) 127 

KAmarAjavajra 50 

KanakabiiAradvAja 39, 294 

Kanakamyni 257 

KanakavarQa-TArA 277 

Kanakavatsa 29, 294 

KanyA ( deva ) 102 

KapAladhara-Hevajra 82 

Knrkn|a ( ? ) deva ( Bodhisattva ) 155 

Karma vajrl 129, 290 

Karma ( ? )-VaiitA 137 

KAr ttikeya { ? ) ( dcva } 156 

Kalyapa 31, 257 

Kaiyapadeva ( Bodhisattva ) 165 

KAtyAyma 30 

Kawmarlf ? ) (devl) 176 

Kelitil ( devl ) 173 



Ketugraha-( deva ) gg 

Khatfgadhara-Bhairavavajra 48, 74 

Khadiravanl-Tara 276 
Khasarparia-Avalokite^vara 

( Bodhisattva ) 202, 264 

Krakucchanda 257 

Krodhacandravajra 163 

Krodhamahabala 310 

Krodhaparajita ( devi ) 183 

Krodhaparajitavajra 182 

Krodha-Vajrapai?i 62 

Krnacarin or Kr^napada 228 

Kjrria-DharmaraJa 175 

Krwa-Garu^a 106 

Kr9a.Jambhala 310 

Kr#a~Jambhalavajra 196 

Kr9iri 235 

K|-$ri-Bhairavavajra 69 

Kr?i?^rivajra ( Buddha ) 45 

Kr?na-Tak?ad ( Raudrantaka- 

Mahaktla ) 301 

Kr^a-Vajravidarana ( Buddha ) 151 

Kruddha-KalMara 279 

K$Hnti-Paramita 120 

K^etrapala 303 

Kitigarbha 274 

Kitigarbha ( Bodhisattva ) 9 

Kitigarbharija ( Bodhisattva ) 8, 56 

KumarabhCita-Mafiju3ri 261 

Kumbha ( ? ) deva 87 

Kumbhfra ( Mahayak^asenapati ) 191 

Kuftcikadharl 108 
KurukullA 105, 239 

Kusuma ( Buddha ) 15 

Kusuma ( Buddha ), the second 14 

Kusuma^r! 250 

Kusumair! ( Buddha ) 18 



LAsyA 63, 145 

Locanaprabha ( Bodhisattva ) 166 



243 
57 

23 
xo 



Lohakhadga-Hayagrlva 
Lohanadi ( ? }-Vajrapani 

M 

Mahabahu ( Buddha ) 
Mahabala ( Buddha ) 
Mahabalavajra 49 

Mahabhurnika-Avalokite&vara 

( Bodhisattva ) 
Mahabhumika { ? )-rakta-Avabkt- 

te^vara 267 

Mahacakra-Vajrapa$i 55, 239 

Mahacakra-VajrapI$i ( Buddlia ) 46 
Mahajinaor Mahjaya (Bodhi- 
sattva } 159 
Mahakla ( deva ) loi 
Mahakiia-gur ( paftjara ? ) 301 
Mrhakla-Takad ( Rauclriiitaka- 
Mahikala } 299 
Mahak&lavajra 75 
Mahaka^yapa 297 
Mahimati ( Bodhisattva ) 295 
MahSmSya, 237 
Mahimayivajra ( Buddha ) 3a 



Mah.plta-Vairavana 

Mahiprabha ( Buddha ) 

Mahipratyarigiiil 

Mahirtja-Vai^ravana 

Maharakta-Ganapati 

Mahasahasrapramardun! 



23 i 
305 
13 

200, 289 
304 
314 
275 
279 

MaMstliimaprapta ( Bodhisattva) 260 
Mahfisukha ( Buddha ) 141 

Mah&vajradlmra 55 

Mahe^vara { deva ) 157 

Mahodgato^I^a ( ? } { Bodhisattva ) 166 
( Buddha } 130, 131 

159 
Maitreya ( Bodhisaf tva ) 7, 9, 59, 143, 



Maitreya { Buddha } 
Maitreya ( Buddha } 
statue 
Makaf a ( deva ) 



MUmakf 



Maifgalotpariana-Tfirii 

MaJriidharin { Bult!ha ) 



31 
standing 

202 
86 

63, 103, 145 

106, 151, 164 

308 

279 

at} 



(Bodhisattva) 7, II, 53, 198, 



Mantrilriudhlrapl 

Mlrasfidafia-T&rl 

Mirk! 

Miirlcf (with jade girdle*) 



205, 275 
278 

189, 201 
2*17, 286 

iifa ( ? } deva ( Bariiitaitt va ) 155 
M&t&trya { ? )-Bhairavavajra 53, 71 
Ma uclga I y a y a n a 30 

M a y i jft la k ra m a - A v a lok i tc4 va ra 267 
Mfna ( deva ) 89 

Moha-Bhairavaviijra 54, 71 

Miidgaradliara-Bhairavavajra 73 

Mukfiskanclh.i ( hutidlia ) 22 

Mukyfidktdharfi 107 

Muni { Bucklhn) 13 

N 

Nftgeivarar&JA 246 

NAgc4vararftja (Buddha) 16 

Nair&tmft 61, 238 

rariija ( Buddha ) 29 

{ Buddha ) 10 
NftmasaAgfti.MaAiiiArf(Bodhiiattva) 

2fS 

NandUvara (?) i deva ) 104, 153 

NlrlyaQn 250 

Nftr&yapa ( Buddha ) aa 

NArftyaoa ( deva ) 181 

NArftyapI (devf) 176 

Niro { H&4\ ) cjlkinf 93 

Nartakivara-Vaiirivspa 305 

NavumJ Tithi 84 



Nava.4ikbin ( ? ) ( Buddha ) 116 

N!ia*Aca!a 309 

Nfla-Acaiavajra 139 

49 

Lokesvara)" 

Avalokiteivara { Bodhisattva) 219 

N!lmbaradhara-Vajrap$Qi ^242 

NHa-Tara 151, x6i 

Nlia-Viijraplrn 264 



Nirbhayavigatatamoraja ( ? ) 
Nirukti*Pfatisarpvit 



256 
134 



, 93* 



O 

Ofadhi { Buddha ) 
P 

Pacaka-Tara 
Padmacaryi* Pirami 1 1 
Padmacjfikin! 



!\Mlni<ti)hara-Hhairavavajra 
Padroajyotirvikrf^itftbbijIUl 



279 

140 

86 

85 

4^73 
251 



{Bodhisattva) 

Padmanarte^vara- Hnyagrfva 
Padmaviki4ana*Ava!okite$vara 
Paflcabuddha-Samvararaja 
( Buddha ) 



PadmajyotirvifcrtyjUtabhijM ( Buddha) 

18 



193 
240 
264 

90 



Avmlokiieivtra {Bodhisattva) 220 

pao4 arav ^ 8 * n t 61 f 106, 152, 164 

Panthaka 25, 295 

Parlpfirpa (or PartQi$panna)-Tara 281 
Pariskara (?}Vaiitl 136 

Parvatadhararaja (Buddha) 31 

Paiadhara 50 

Pill 95 

25, 295 



Pltaparajita 

Plta-Jambhala 

Plta-Jambhalavajra 

Pita -Marie! 

Prabhakarl 

Prabhamati or Prajftaloka 

(Bodhisattva) 
Prabhasa,4ri 
Prabhasa^rl ( Buddha ) 
Prabhflta (Buddha) 
Pradlpa (Buddha) 
Pradyota ( Buddha ) 
Prajflacakra-Mafljughoa 
PrajflakGJa (Bodhisattva) 
Prajflalokakftya-sita-Vajravarahi 
Prajfiantakavajra 
Prajfiaparamita 
Pramudita 
Pra^idhana-Paramita 



197 

309 
203, 214 

200 
123 



195 
250 
22 
26 
26 

15 
263 
132 

292 
59 

140,206 
123 
117 
134 

Prathamacittotpada-Samsayacche- 
dika ( ? ) 

Pratibhana-Pratisamvit 

Pratisarl 190 

Pratyalf$ha-Bhairavavajra 

Pravlra ( ? )-Tara 

Prthivl 

P|-thivl (devl) 

PukkasI 

Puijye^varl ( ? ) 



214, 



256 
135 

216, 276 
69 
276 
180 
179 

91, 100 
174 
67, 94 



R 



RSga-Bhairavavajra 53, 71 

RUganisiidana-Tara 280 

Rlhu(deva) 153 

RaJallla-Maftjugrl ( Bodhisattva ) 218, 

263 

Rlk^asa 178 

Rakta -Bhairavavajra ( Buddha ) 46 
RaMa-Sarasvatl ?03 



Rakta3ula-Vairavana 305 

Rakta-Yamari 236 

Ra^misamudgata-Srlkutaraja 260 

Ratnacandra 247 

Ratnacandra ( Buddha } 19 
RatnacandrapadmapnUimajKlita- 
pandita ( ? ) tejahsvaraghosanlja- 

( Buddha } 258 

Ratnacandraprabha 247 

Ratnacandraprabha { Buddha } 20 

Ratnacchattrodgata ( Buddha ) 255 
Ratnacchattrodgatapnibha 

( Buddha ) 38 

Ratna^&ka gt 

Ratnagni 246 

Ratnagni { Buddha ) 20 

Ratnamukufa ( Bodhisaltva } 172 

Ratnaftgadyuti ( Buddha ) 37 

Ratnaftgavyuhadyuti ( Buddha } 254 

Ratnapadmavikramin 253 

Ratnapadrnavikramin ( Buddha ) 21 

Ratn^rcis 245 

Ratharcis { Buddha ) 16 

Ratnasambhava 244 
Ratnasambhava ( Buddha ) 32, 57, 



JRatna^ikhin 

Ratna&khin ( ? ) ( Buddha ) 

Ratnavajrf { ? ) 

Ratnavajrf 

Ratnavijaya 

Ratna^vari (?) 



.96, 



Sabarl 



a^bhuja*Jambhalavajra 
$acjbhuja-Mahaka!a 



207, 



173 
174 
304 
133 

100 
310 
203 
299 
287 



aclbhujaVajrasarasvat! 

Sadhumatf 

Sahara -Samvara 

Sihasrapramarclan! 

Sailendrarftja ( Buddha ) 

Sakra 

Salfyamuni 

^akyatnuni ( Buddha ) 6, 

Sfikyaprabha 

S&kyasiriiha ( Buddha ) 

Samantabhadra 

Samantabhadra ( Bodhisattva 

Samanticlar^itt ( Jina ) 
Sarnantadiuravajra { ? ) 
SarnantaprabhA 
SamantavabliAsavydihair! ( But 



282 
288 
118 
234 

205 

253 

8rj 178 

245 

17, 167 
225 
128 
274 

) 8, cj, 

S^, I3J 

2(10 

157 



Samvarar&ja ( Buddha } 



Sahkara ( ? ) v,ijr,t 
&artkar ? ( ? ) ( clevl } 
Sa rt k ha pa d m a 

(devl) 



8. rp 

297 
158 
x8J 

1 711 

301 



( Buddha ) 



45 



S*ir*isvali 

Aha ( Buddha ) 



173, 



13 



( BodhUUv4 



7, ii, 31, 074 
{ devf ) UK) 
&irvA|)AyiAjiha { BodhUatlva ) 169 
Sarv&rihadhaiui*TAr& 204, 



Sar va vid Vairoca na 14 1 

Sarvavid-Vairocana { Buddha ) 114, 1515 



25 



$a$|hl Tilhi 87 

&ttraclharaIIcvajra ( Buddha ) 81 
&atakratu t 3 og 

Siitrufljayavajr.1 154 

Sattvavajf! 122, 291 

SiddhaHarigha 230 

SiddliidA-TarA ,1281 

$ikliin 256 

Slla-I'ftramitft 120 

Simlui ( Buddlu ) 16 

Siiiihadhvaja 170 

Sitiiiiaiiftda ( Buddha ) 36 

Sifiihanfida { Jitnt ) #59 

Siiftlianftda-Avalokitfivara 199, 265 
SiriihanAda' MaAjuglio$a 26$ 

Sirhliav&liana*MaAju4r! 

(BodhUattva ) 198 

SiriibavAltana*Taktpid ( Raudflntika- 

MatnlkAla | 299 

Siitihavaktra 314 

Sit.i-Arala 309 

Sita-Acalavajm 198 

Sita-Ayurvardh*ina Vaiiravana 304 
Sita ( infauum Maliakahi 304 

Sit a { deva ) 99 

Sila-IIayagrlvavajra { Buddha ) 151 
Sita*MaAjugho^a 261 

Sita-MaAjuArl ( RcxIliisaUva ) 317 
Sita^Nftinrajn 180 

Siu-nigavAhana-JambhaU 313 

SitaNlg! 180 

Sita-Samvara 134 

Sila-SamvarArijft 90 

Sita*SamvarirIja { Baddba ) 81 

S>t;*ujMtr,i ( Bmiliisnttvn ) i6a 

Sitllapair& 190, aoa 

SilItipiFfQlp ( Buddha ) 131 

Sila-Tirl 1% a*6 

125 

SN^# 75 
SlU*VetilI . $3 



Smytiir! 

tiSrl (Buddha) 



Sita-vijaya-Tara 2 8o 

204 
251 

15 

>kitevara 

{Bodhisattva) 216 

Sokanirghatamati ( Bodhisattva ) 135 

Sokavinodana-Tara * 278 
Sphofadhara $ 0> 35 

Saptamf Tithi ' 84 
rama$i (devf) 204, 291 

Srl-Cakrasamvara 233 

Srf-Vtdirtt ( Bodhisattva ) 220 

Spftkhali (?) 208 

Sthiracakra-Mafijughoa 261 

Sudadana 298 

Sudariana ( Bodhisattva ) 192 

Sudhanakumira 171 

Sudurjayl 121 

Sukhada-Tirl 280 

SumerukHf a ( Bodhisattva ) 194 
Sumeruparvatar&ja or Sailendraraja 

( Buddha ) 12 
Sumaruiikharadhararaja ( Bodhi- 
sattva ) a 194 
Sunimatathtgata ( Buddha ) 34 
Sunetra ( Buddha ) 13 
SyparikfrtitanimaM 252 
Suparlklrtitanama^r! (Buddha) 14 
Supariktrtltanamalrfraja 258 
Surtdatta 248 
Suradatta { Buddha ) 19 
SuraAgama ( Bodhisattva ) 135 
Suratol { Buddha ) 33 
Sftrya ( deva ) 178 
SSryadhara 88 
Siryagarbha ( Buddha ) 12 
Stryaprabha ( deva ) 89 
Stryavairocana ( Bodhisattva ) 197 
S^rtrptbhadfavimalaratnaprabha- 
suvrata 258 



Suvarnaratnaprabhatathigata 

( Buddha } 

Suvikrantagamin ( Buddha ) 
Suvikrtatafirl 
Suvikranta^rf ( Buddha ) 
Syanva-Taii, 

T 



U^l^acakravartin 



34 
21 

252 
14 



Takkiraja 
Tamodghatamati 



3<>3 
? ) { Bodhisattva ) 



60, 107, 171 
Tathata (?) 237 

Tejau$$!$a { ? ) ( Buddha } 127, 231 
Tejoryu$$ffa ( Bodhisattva ) 158 
Tejo ( ? ) vajra 74 

Tik$$oi?!a ( ? ) { Buddha ) 13 1 

Trailokyaraja 310 

Trailokyavadarhkara-Avalokite^vara 

a 19. 266 



263 
139 
168 
116 
104 

194 

243 
aio 

207 
101 

88 
i8a 
283 
133 



Trailokyavijaya ( Buddha } 
Trailokyavijaya ( Bodlnsattva ) 
Trailokyavijayavajra 
Trayoda^a ( deva } 
Trimukhacaturbhuja-Maitreya 
( Bodhisattva } 



Trimukha|a<Jbhujasita-TrI 
Trimukhafabhuja-rakta~ 

Hayagrlvavajra 
TuII { deva ) 

U 
Uikidharl 



Upakrfinl(?) (devl) 
Upapatti-Vaiiti 
Uptsaka-Dharmatala 
Uptyakauia!ya~P&ramtt4 



177, 



Uttama&l ( Buddha } 

V 



76 

277 

286 

115* 139 



t Maftjugho^a 262 

Vaklya ( Buddha ) 27 

Vairocana - 244 

Vairocarta ( Buddha } xa, 37 

Vairocana-Bhairavavajra 68 

Vairocana-MaHjuvajra 54 

Vairocartlbhisambodhi 24,1 
Vairocandbhisainbodht { Buddha } 

130, 161 

Vairocana-S&kyasivhha 341 

VajrabhA^a 270 

Vajrabh$a ( Bodhisattva } 144 

VajrAbhedya ( Buddha ) 17 

Vajrabhrkutl no 

Vajrabhfimi 5a, 97 

Vajracakra { Bocihbattva ) x6o 

VajracarcikA a9 

Vajracaryl-PIramill 140 

Vajracatu^pftha 239 

Vajra^Ikinf 93 

Vajradanta { Bodhisattva } 159 

Vajradharma 371 

Vajradharma ( Buddha ) iaj 

Vajradharma ( Bodhisattva ) 142 
Vajradharma-Avalokitevara 
Vajradhltti 

Vajardhfttu { Buddha ) 
Vajradhfttu* Vairocana ( Bwddhs ) 



196, 



1 17 
166 



Vajragandhi 
Vajragindhlr! 
Vajrmgarbha ( Bodhisattva } 
Vajragarhhapramardtn 
Vajragarbhapramardin-Avalokite- 
ivara 



113 

123 
a68 
60 
90 

133 



27 



Vajragaru^la ( Sabala ) 

Vajraghapfi 

VitjrligrH 

Vajrahiia 

Vajrahetu 

Vajrahurfiklra 

Vajrak&la 

Vajrakarma 

Vajra kef ti 

Vajr&kfobhya 



235 

6 5 

i63 

141, 271 

142, 270 
238, 314 



Vajiffiala 
Vajr&niia 



145. 



270 
271 
260 

65 

237 
269 



75 

Vajr&ftktiA! 64 

Vajra [ pftpi ] ( Bodhisattva ) 8, n, 

56, 197, 201 
I Vajra ]paAjarabh$ita-Vajratr 281 

Vwjraputtall { ? ) 
Vajrarftga 
VajrarHgl ( ? ) 
Vajrar&ja 
Vajrariik^a 



Vajrarasi 
V.tjraratua 



Viijrasidha 

Vajrattnti 

Vajrasattva 

Vajrasattva { Buddha } 

Vajrasattva ( Bodhisattva ) 

Vajratattva-Samvara 



Vajraifirya 



Vajratfk^a 



no 

120, 272 
97 

128, 272 
144, 269 

59 

xxg, 272 
60 

60, 98 

119, 272 

97 

242 

138 

129, 273 
234 

64, 163 

196, 311 

65 

119, 271 
142, 270 



VaJravarHhf 

Vajravetai! 

Vajravidara^a ( mistake for 

vidarai?! ? ) 
Vajravidararil 

Vajrayaka 66, 

Vajrlputra 
Vajrodaka 
Vajro?i?fsa 

Vajroflla ( Buddha ) 
Vajro^isacakravartiraja 
Vanav^sin 
VIrhi ( devl ) 
Vari,-devi 



Varuga ( Buddha ) 

Varu$a ( deva } 

Varu^adeva 

Varuijadeva ( Buddha) 

Vasanta-dev! 

Vasithadeva ( Bodhisattva 

Vasubhu 

Vasumat! ( ? ) ( devl ) 

Vyu ( deva ) 

Vidyuddhara 

Vighnantaka 

Vighnantakavajra 

Vijaya 

Vijaya ( Bodhisattva ) 

Vijaya 

Vijaya-Tara 

Vijayo$$!$a ( Buddha ) 



179 



Vikr&ntotifa ( ? } ( Buddha ) 

Vimala 

Vimala ( Buddha ) 

Vimala 

VimalftkaSa ( Bodhisattva ) 

Vimalaprabhakumara 

Vl$,dhar, 

V!9&-SarasvatI 



238 
62 
Vajra- 

3*3 

312 

145, 269 

2 8, 293 

51 

65 

128 

49 

36, 293 

72, 176 

307 

248 

24 

98, 178 
249 
24 
307 
155 
225 
184 
181 
88 
311 
217 

170, 177 

* 162 

189, 213* 

277 

130 

253 

130 

247 

19 

123 

163 

172 

107 

288 



Vipa$yin( Buddha) 
Viranandin 

Viranandin( Buddha) 
Virasena 

Vfrasena( Buddha) 
Viripaka 



irva- 



Vip(deva) 

ViSvabhu 

Vita (?)4&ka (Buddha) 

Vifeamitj* 



256 Vffcika(dew) 104 
246 VyighravIhani'MaliSkSla 300 
20 Y 

246 Yaka(deva) 102 

16 Yakja Purijabhadra 313 

306 Yamintakavajra 52,73 

306 Y^ketttorYaWhvaja 

117 (Buddha) 10 

,156 YaiodharSj?) yt 

257 YogSmbara 239 

107 Yoglmbaraf Buddha) 81,103 
284 Yuddhajaya 252 

108 Yuddhajaya) Buddha) ai 



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50 


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53 


3 


54 


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54 


21 


65 


12 


65 


13 


65 


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78 


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80 


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